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Publication date: 2010-03-31
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2010;60(1):71-76
Lifestyle modification, including dietary changes, is very important in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. It has been well documented that DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet has the potential to lower blood pressure and to improve patients’ overall health. The aim of this study was to evaluate compliance to DASH diet by patients with essential hypertension. A total of 159 patients with medically treated essential hypertension, 80 men and 79 women were included in the study. All patients were taking multiple antihypertensive drugs to achieve hypertension target goal (<140/90 mm Hg). Over 70% of hypertensive patients were obese (BMI ≥30 kgm2) and abdominal obesity, confirmed by waist circumferences, was found in 94.3% of them. The diets of hypertensive patients met daily nutritional guidelines only for protein and sodium intake. According to DASH diet, very high intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol, as well as a high intake of total fat were found. The intakes of hypotensive minerals such as calcium, potassium and magnesium were below the levels recommended by DASH diet. Daily intake of fiber was only 25.6±10.3 g among men and 21.6±6.5 g among women (70-80% of recommended value). This diet profile may contribute to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Most of the hypertensive patients on DASH diet require major dietary changes. A comprehensive, tailored nutritional education, provided by dietitian, should be offered for motivated patients.
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