EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF CARBAMYLPHOSPHATE SYNTHETASE AND UREASE ACTIVITIES IN SELECTED STRAINS OF WINE YEAST ON THE PRODUCTION OF ETHYL CARBAMATE
 
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Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2006;56(4):445–452
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ABSTRACT
The study was aimed at evaluating the enzymatic capacity of selected strains of wine yeast S. cerevisiae for the production of carbamylphosphate synthetase (EC 6.3.4.16) and urease (EC 3.5.1.5) as well as their effect on the production of ethyl carbamate in plum mashes. The experimental material were strains of wine yeast: Syrena, Tokay, Burgund, Bordeaux, Steinberg, originating from the Pure Cultures Collection of the Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Technical University of Łódź, and Saccharomyces bayanus yeast by Prochimica Varese SRL company (Italy). Distillery fruit mashes were prepared from plums var. Węgierka łowicka. Under conditions of alcoholic fermentation, the highest activities of NH4+-dependent carbamylphosphate synthetase (45.43 x 10-3 U/mg protein) and urease (0.57 U/mg protein) were observed for the strain Steinberg. Irrespective of the activity (3.2–92.95 U/mg protein) of carbamylphosphate synthetase in the yeast strains examined, the concentration of ethyl carbamate in after-fermentation liquids was at a similar level (<0.01 mg/L). Under conditions of a limited access of oxygen, the maximum activity of urease in S. bayanus yeasts (1.66 U/mg protein), was observed at the stage of preliminary fermentation (yeasts in the stationary phase of growth). Culture media of the Steinberg strain were found to demonstrate a relatively high degree of urea reduction under anaerobic conditions – 19% and a trace concentration of urethane (<0.01 mg/L). A low urolytic activity (0.192 U/mg protein) of yeasts of the Tokay strain was reflected in a relatively high concentration of urethane (0.210 mg/L of 40% spirit) in plum spirit obtained with their participation. Fermentation of plum mash with S. bayanus yeast applied at a dose of 0.5 g d.m./kg, resulted in a decrease in the concentration of ethyl carbamate by 44% (0.07 mg/L of 40% spirit), as compared to the dose of 0.1-0.3 g d.m./kg.
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