Search for Author, Title, Keyword
Physical, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Sensory Properties of Bioplastics from Phosphate Acetylated Arenga Starches
More details
Hide details
Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, Jalan Soekarno Hatta Km.9 No.32 Palu, Central Sulawesi, 94118 Indonesia
Graduates Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, Jalan Soekarno Hatta Km. 9 No.32 Palu, Central Sulawesi, 94118 Indonesia
Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Tadulako University, Jalan Soekarno Hatta Km. 9 No.32 Palu, Central Sulawesi, 94118 Indonesia
Indonesian Palm Crops Research Institute, Jalan Raya Mapanget PO BOX 1004 Manado Nort Sulawesi, Indonesia
Submission date: 2019-11-03
Final revision date: 2020-04-05
Acceptance date: 2020-04-07
Online publication date: 2020-05-25
Publication date: 2020-05-25
Corresponding author
Abdul Rahim   

Food Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, Jalan Soekarno Hatta Km.9 No.32 Palu, Central Sula, 94118, Palu, Indonesia
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2020;70(3):223-231
Bioplastics are alternative to plastic packaging made from renewable natural materials. They have a great potential for wider application due to their environmental-friendliness and ease of degradation. This research, therefore, aimed to evaluate the physical, physicochemical, mechanical, and sensory characteristics of bioplastics made from native arenga starch (NAS) and phosphate acetylated arenga starch (PAAS). The PAAS was obtained by dual modification of NAS through acetylation using 5% acetic anhydride and crosslinking using a mixture of sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) at 99:1 (w/w). The concentrations of the mixture were varied at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) of the starch. The thickness, water holding capacity (WHC), oil holding capacity (OHC), water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), water content, biodegradation, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, tensile strength, elongation at break, Young’s modulus, and sensory properties of the NAS and PAAS bioplastics were investigated. The results showed the thickness of the NAS and PAAS was generally uniform. The WHC of the NAS bioplastic was higher than that of PAAS. The OHC and WVTR of the PAAS bioplastics increased with the increment in the concentration of the STMP/STPP mixture. Furthermore, the water content of the PAAS bioplastics was lower than that of NAS, while the weight loss due to biodegradation of the NAS was higher compared to PAAS. The PAAS bioplastics were characterized by FTIR, which confirmed the acetylation and crosslinking between the arenga starch molecules. Generally, the elongation at break of the PAAS bioplastics was higher than that of the NAS bioplastic, color of the PAAS bioplastics was more transparent and texture of the PAAS bioplastics surface was smoother than of the NAS bioplastic.
The authors appreciate the laboratory staff of Agricultural Processing Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tadulako University, Central Sulawesi Indonesia for their useful contributions.
The authors are grateful to the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education for financial support through the Basic Research Scheme with Contract Number: 100/SP2H/LT/DRPM/2019 dated March 21, 2019.
AOAC International 2005. Method 926.08. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, USA: AOAC International.
Arikan, E.B., Bilgen, H.D. (2019). Production of bioplastic from potato peel waste and investigation of its biodegradability. International Advanced Researches and Engineering Journal, 3(2), 93-97.
Ashok, A., Abhijith, R., Rejeesh, C.R. (2018). Material characterization of starch derived biodegradable plastics and its mechanical property estimation. Materials Today: Proceedings, 5(1), 2163–2170.
Atef, M., Rezaei, M., Behrooz, R. (2015). Characterization of physical, mechanical, and antibacterial properties of agar-cellulose bionanocompasite films incorporated with savory essential oil. Food Hydrocolloids, 45, 150-157.
Chung, Yi-Lin, Ansari, S., Estevez, L., Hayrapetyan, S., Giannelis, G.P., Lai, H.M. (2010). Preparation and properties of biodegradable starch–clay nanocomposites. Carbohydrate Polymers, 79(2), 391–396.
Colussi, R., Pinto, V.Z., Halal, S.L.M.E., Biduski, B., Prietto, L., Castilhos, D.D., Zavareze, E.R., Dias, A.R.G. (2017). Acetylated rice starches films with different levels of amylose: Mechanical, water vapor barrier, thermal, and biodegradability properties. Food Chemistry, 221, 1614–1620.
Detduangchan, N., Sridach, W., Wittaya, T. (2014). Enhancement of the properties of biodegradable rice starch films by using chemical crosslinking agents. International Food Research Journal, 21(3), 1225-1235.
Diop, C., Li, H.L., Xie, B.J., Shi, J. (2011). Effects of acetic acid/acetic anhydride ratios on the properties of corn starch acetates. Food Chemistry, 126(4), 1662–1669.
Fakhouri, F.M., Cost, D., Yamashita, F., Martelli, S.M., Jesus, R.C., Alganer, K.,Collares Quiros, F.P., Innocentini-Mei, L.H. (2013). Comparative study of processing methods for starch gelatin films. Carbohydrate Polymers, 95(2), 681-689.
Fakhouri, F.M., Maria, M.S., Canhadas-Bertan, L., Yamashita, F., Innocentini-Mei, L.H., Collares, Q.F.P. (2012). Edible films made from blends of manioc starch and gelatin - Influence of different types of plasticizer and different levels of macromolecules on their properties. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 49(1), 149–154.
Ghasemlou, M., Aliheidari, N., Fahmi, R., Shojaee Aliabadi, S., Keshavarz, B., Cran, M.J., Khaksar, R. (2013). Physical, mechanical and barrier properties of corn starch films incorporated with plant essential oils. Carbohydrate Polymers, 98, 1117-1126.
Gutiérrez, T.J., Tapia, M.S., Pérez, E., Famá, L. (2015). Edible films based on native and phosphated 80:20 waxy:normal corn starch. Starch/Starcke, 67(1–2), 90–97.
Jain, R., Tiwari, A. (2015). Biosynthesis of planet friendly bioplastics using renewable carbon source. Journal of Environmental Health Science and Engineering, 13(1), art. no. 11.
Keziah, V.S., Gayathri, R., Priya, V.V. (2018). Biodegradable plastic production from corn starch. Drug Invention Today, 10(7), 1315–1317.
Koo, Hyun, S., Lee, K.Y., Lee, H.G. (2010). Effect of cross-linking on the physicochemical and physiological properties of corn starch. Food Hydrocolloids, 24(6-7), 619-625.
Larrauri, J.A., Ruperez, P., Borroto, B., Saura-Calixto, S. (1996). Mango peels as a new tropical fibre: Preparation and characterization. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 29(8), 729–733.
Liu, W.W., Xue, J., Cheng, B.J., Zhu, S.W., Ma, Q., Ma, H. (2016). Anaerobic biodegradation, physical and structural properties of normal and high-amylose maize starch films. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, 9(5), 184–193.
López de Dicastillo, C., Rodríguez, F., Guarda, A., Galotto, M.J. (2016). Antioxidant films based on cross-linked methyl cellulose and native Chilean berry for food packaging applications. Carbohydrate Polymers, 136, 1052–1060.
López, O.V., Lecot, C.J., Zaritzky, N.E., García, M.A. (2011). Biodegradable packages development from starch based heat sealable films. Journal of Food Engineering, 105, 254–263.
Marichelvam, M.K., Jawaid, M., Asim, M. (2019). Corn and rice starch-based bio-plastics as alternative packaging materials. Fibers, 7(4), art. no. 32.
Maulida, Siagian, M., Tarigan, P. (2016). Production of starch based bioplastic from cassava peel Reinforced with microcrystalline cellulose Avicel PH101 using sorbitol as plasticizer. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 710(1), art. no. 012012.
Ogunrinola, T.M., Akpan, U.G. (2018). Production of cassava starch bioplastic film reinforced with Poly-Lactic Acid (PLA). International Journal of Engineering Research and Advanced Technology, 4(8), 56–61.
Polnaya, F.J., Haryadi, Marseno, D.W., Cahyanto, M.N. (2013). Effects of phosphorylation and cross-linking on the pasting properties and molecular structure of sago starch. International Food Research Journal, 20(4), 1609-1615.
Prasteen, P., Thushyanthy, Y., Mikunthan, T., Prabhaharan, M. (2018). Bio-plastics - An alternative to petroleum based plastics. International Journal of Research Studies in Agricultural Sciences, 4(1), 1–7.
Rahim, A., Kadir, S., Jusman, J. (2015). Chemical and functional properties of acetylated arenga starches prepared at different reaction time. International Journal of Current Research in Biosciences and Plant Biology, 2(9), 43-49.
Rahim, A., Kadir, S., Jusman, J. (2017). The influence degree of substitution on the physicochemical properties of acetylated arenga starches. International Food Research Journal, 24(1), 102-107.
Rahim, A., Kadir, S., Jusman, J., Zulkipli, Z., Hambali, T.N.A. (2019). Physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of bread with different concentrations of acetylated arenga starches. International Food Research Journal, 26(3), 841-848.
Sahari, J., Sapuan, S.M., Zainudin, E.S., Maleque, M.A. (2014). Physicochemical and thermal properties of starch derived from sugar palm tree (Arenga pinnata). Asian Journal Chemistry, 26(4), 955–959.
Sindhu, R., Khatkar, B.S. (2018). Development of edible films from native and modified starches of common buckwheat. International Advanced Research Journal in Science, Engineering and Technology, 5(3), 9-12.
Sondari, D., Iltizam, I. (2018). Effect of hydrogen peroxide on edible film from cassava starch. AIP Conference Proceedings, 2026 (October).
Sukhija, S., Singh, S., Riar, C.S. (2019). Development and characterization of biodegradable films from whey protein concentrate, psyllium husk and oxidized, crosslinked, dual-modified lotus rhizome starch composite. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 99(7), 3398–3409.
Tawakaltu, A.R.A., Egwim, E.C., Ochigbo, S.S., Ossai, P.C. (2015). Effect of acetic acid and citric acid modification on biodegradability of cassava starch nanocomposite films. Journal of Materials Science and Engineering, B 5(9-10), 372-379.
Turhan, K.N., Sahbaz, F. (2004). Water vapor permeability, tensile properties and solubility of methylcellulose-based edible film. Journal of Food Engineering, 61(3), 459-466.
Wang, H., Liao, Y., Wu, A., Li, B., Qian, J., Ding, F. (2019). Effect of sodium trimetaphosphate on chitosan-methylcellulose composite films: Physicochemical properties and food packaging application. Polymers, 11(2), art. no. 368.
Woggum, T., Sirivongpaisal, P., Wittaya, T. (2014). Properties and characteristics of dual-modified rice starch based biodegradable films. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 67, 490–502.
Xu, Y., Miladinov, V., Hanna, M.A. (2004). Synthesis and characterization of starch acetates with high substitution. Cereal Chemistry Journal, 81(6), 735-740.
Zhang, Y.R., Wang, X.L., Zhao, G.M., Wang, Y.Z. (2013). Influence of oxidized starch on the properties of thermoplastic starch. Carbohydrate Polymers, 96, 358-364.
Application of modified starch on glass bioplastic based on carrageenan from Eucheuma cottonii on mechanic and biodegradation properties
T Triani, M Alamsjah, D Pujiastuti
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
Preparation of green film with improved physicochemical properties and enhanced antimicrobial activity using ingredients from cassava peel, bamboo leaf and rosemary leaf
Teklu GadisaTafa, Adam Engida
Ethno‐pharmacological and industrial attributes on the underutilized Arenga species in India
Anup Sarkar, Satyajit Oraon, Subrata Mondal, Sanjoy Sadhukhan
Journal of Food Biochemistry
Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of edible films from phosphorylated arenga starches using sodium tripolyphosphate
A Rahim, Rostiati, N Alam, S Halid, Ilham
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top