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Publication date: 2010-09-30
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2010;60(3):243–249
The effect of quality of raw materials, methods of their processing, pH of mashes, and yeast strains on the concentration of carbonyl compounds in aronia distillates was determined. Acetaldehyde dominated aliphatic carbonyl compounds that were contained in the tested samples of aronia spirits. Its concentration varied between 0.100 g and 0.330 g/L spirit 100% v/v. Crotonaldehyde was not found in tested samples the. Distillates derived from frozen aronia berries contained almost twice more acetaldehyde (0.230 g/L spirit 100% v/v) than that obtained from fresh fruits. An adjustment of pH of aronia mashes from 3.4 to 4.5 resulted in an increase in the concentration of carbonyl compounds (in particular of acetaldehyde) from 0.304 to 0.400 g/L spirit 100% v/v. Thermal processing of fruit pulp decreased the concentration of butyraldehyde and increased concentrations of valeric and isovaleric aldehydes. Spirits produced from mashes fermented by yeast S. bayanus contained approximately 43% more acetaldehyde (0.330 g/L spirit 100% v/v) than that obtained from mashes fermented by mixed strains: Burgund, Bordeaux, and Steinberg. Carbonyl compounds (aldehydes and ketones) and acetals accounted for approximately 41-53% compounds identified by GC/MS. Aronia spirits contained diethyl acetals of butyric, isovaleric, caproic, ethoxypropionic and 2-furfuryl aldehydes. Also the “mixed” acetals of acetaldehyde and ethyl, propyl, and amyl alcohols were detected. Aronia spirits were found to contain furfural, benzaldehyde, vanillin and furan compounds, such as dihydro–3,5–dimethyl–2(3H)– furanone.