Exploring the Suitability of Incorporating Tiger Nut Flour as Novel Ingredients in Gluten Free Biscuit
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Publication date: 2014-03-31
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2014;64(1):27–33
The effect of using tiger nut flour to improve the functional properties of gluten-free biscuit was explored. Corn flour in the biscuit formulation was replaced at three levels, 10, 20, and 30% with tiger nut flour (TNF). Biscuit containing only corn flour was used as control. Prepared biscuits were analyzed for its proximate composition, physical properties, diameter, thickness, color, differential scanning calorimetery DSC, texture and scanning electron microscopy SEM. Substitution of tiger nut flour resulted in significant increase in fibre and ash contents while protein decreased. The spread ration of the biscuits increased significantly by increasing TNF content which is considered a desirable quality attribute. Tiger nut containing biscuits exhibited total color difference ∆E value lower than control sample. Thermal characteristics of TNF containing biscuits differed significantly (P ≤0.05) from control where TNF resulted in decreased onset gelatinization temperature (To) and peak temperature (Tp). Furthermore, enthalpies of control biscuits were significantly higher than those containing TNF; that might be due to partial gelatinization since their enthalpies were smaller than control biscuits. Measurement of baked biscuit texture showed that hardness and resilience values decreased when TNF content in the biscuit formulation increased. Microscopic observation revealed that TNF containing biscuit gave the most uniform and homogeneous pore distributions. These attributes probably positively influenced the quality with better surface characteristics. The results of this study revealed that incorporating TNF at the ration of 20% resulted in biscuits of superior technological quality expressed in shape, cross section structure, hardness, and surface appearance.