Search for Author, Title, Keyword
Jamun Seed: A Review on Bioactive Constituents, Nutritional Value and Health Benefits
More details
Hide details
Department of Biochemistry, Agriculture University, Kota, Rajasthan-324001, India
Department of Biochemistry, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab-141004, India
Department of Horticulture, College of Agriculture, Agriculture University, Kota, Rajasthan-324001, India
HCP Division, ICAR-Central Institute of Post-Harvest Engineering & Technology, Abohar-152116, India
Department of Fruit Science, College of Horticulture & Forestry, Jhalawar-326023, Rajasthan, India
Department of Agriculture, Sant Baba Bhag Singh University, Jalandhar-144030, Punjab, India
Department of Entomology, MBDDS Girls College, Siswali, Baran, Rajasthan-334001, India
College of Agriculture, Ummedganj, Agriculture University, Kota, Rajasthan-324001, India, India
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, 32900 San Cibrao das Viñas, Spain, Spain
Department of Chemical and Physical Properties of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
Ryszard Amarowicz   

Department of Chemical and Physical Properties of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
Submission date: 2022-03-17
Final revision date: 2022-08-01
Acceptance date: 2022-08-02
Online publication date: 2022-09-05
Publication date: 2022-09-05
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2022;72(3):211–228
Jamun fruit, a member of the Myrtaceae family, is commercially grown in tropical and subtropical areas of the world for its fruits with sweet, sour, and astringent luscious flesh. Seeds of jamun fruits are discarded as trash during the industrial processing of fruit pulp into beverages, jellies, jam, vinegar, wine, and squash. These seeds are a potential source of bioactive compounds including hydrolysable tannins, phenolic acids, flavonoids, other phenolics, terpenoids, phloroglucinol derivatives and saponins, which have been endorsed several biological activities, such as antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antihyperlipidemic and antihypercholesterolemic, as well as cardioprotective, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective properties. High contents of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, minerals, and ascorbic acid have also been found in jamun seeds. However, potential utilization of these seeds as innovative implements for health benefits has not yet been fully understood. We aim to compile scientific research and recent advances on jamun seed nutritional profile, bioactive compounds composition, bioactive properties, and their potential as an ingredient in functional food formulation.
This research received no external funding.
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Abdin, M., Hamed, Y.S., Akhtar, H.M.S., Chen, D., Mukhtar, S., Wan, P., Riaz, A., Zeng, X. (2019). Extraction optimisation, antioxidant activity and inhibition on α-amylase and pancreatic lipase of polyphenols from the seeds of Syzygium cumini. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 54(6), 2084-2093.
Abdin, M., El‑Beltagy, A.E., El‑Sayed, M.E., Naeem, M.A. (2022). Production and characterization of sodium alginate/gum Arabic based films enriched with Syzygium cumini seeds extracts for food application. Journal of Polymers and the Environment, 30, 1615-1626.
Alam, F., Shafique, Z., Amjad, S.T., Bin Asad, M.H.H. (2019). Enzymes inhibitors from natural sources with antidiabetic activity: A review. Phytotherapy Research, 33(1), 41–54.
Al-Dhabi, N.A., Ponmurugan, K. (2020). Microwave assisted extraction and characterization of polysaccharide from waste jamun fruit seeds. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 152, 1157-1163.
Alikatte, K.L., Akondi, B.R., Yerragunta, V.G., Veerareddy, P.R., Suresh Palle, S. (2012). Antiamnesic activity of Syzygium cumini against scopolamine induced spatial memory impairments in rats. Brain & Development, 34,(10), 844-851.
Aqil, F., Gupta, A., Munagala, R., Jeyabalan, J., Kausar, H., Sharma, R.J., Singh, I.P., Gupta, R.C. (2012). Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of anthocyanin/ellagitannin-enriched extracts from Syzygium cumini L. (Jamun, the Indian blackberry). Nutrition and Cancer, 64(3), 428-438.
Arun, R., Prakash, M.V.D., Abraham, S.K., Premkumar, K. (2011). Role of Syzygium cumini seed extract in the chemoprevention of in vivo genomic damage and oxidative stress. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 134(2), 329-333.
Assan Aliyar, M., Nadig, P., Bharatam, N. (2021). In vitro anti-diabetic activity, bioactive constituents, and molecular modeling studies with sulfonylurea receptor1 for insulin secretagogue activity of seed extract of Syzygium cumini (L.). Journal of Herbmed Pharmacology, 10(3), 304-312.
Atale, N., Chakraborty, M., Mohanty, S., Bhattacharya, S., Nigam, D., Sharma, M., Rani, V. (2013). Cardioprotective role of Syzygium cumini against glucose-induced oxidative stress in H9C2 cardiac myocytes. Cardiovascular Toxicology, 13(3), 278-289.
Atale, N., Mishra, C.B., Kohli, S., Mongre, R.K., Prakash, A., Kumari, S., Yadav, U.C.S., Jeon, R., Rani, V. (2021). Anti-inflammatory effects of S. cumini seed extract on gelatinase-B (MMP-9) regulation against hyperglycemic cardiomyocyte stress. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2021, art. no. 8839479.
Bag, A., Bhattacharyya, S.K., Pal, N.K., Chattopadhyay, R.R. (2012). In vitro antibacterial potential of Eugenia jambolana seed extracts against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens. Microbiological Research, 167(6), 352- 357.
Bajpai, M., Pande, A., Tewari, S.K., Prakash, D. (2005). Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 56(4), 287-291.
Balyan, U., Sarkar, B. (2016). Integrated membrane process for purification and concentration of aqueous Syzygium cumini (L.) seed extract. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 98, 29-43.
Balyan, U., Sarkar, B. (2017). Aqueous extraction kinetics of phenolic compounds from jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) seeds. International Journal of Food Properties, 20(2), 372-389.
Balyan, U., Sarkar, B. (2018). Ultrafiltration of Syzygium cumini (L.) seeds extract: Analysis of flux decline and extract stability. Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering, 13(2), art. no. e2166.
Bellé, L.P., Bitencourt, P.E.R., Abdalla, F.H., de Bona, K.S., Peres, A., Maders, L.D.K., Moretto, M.B. (2013). Aqueous seed extract of Syzygium cumini inhibits the dipeptidyl peptidase IV and adenosine deaminase activities, but it does not change the CD26 expression in lymphocytes in vitro. Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry, 69(1), 119-124.
Benherlal, P.S., Arumughan, C. (2007). Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant studies of S. cumini fruit. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 87(14), 2560-2569.
Bhaskar, K., Sassykova, L.R., Prabhahar, M., ShebhaPercis, E., Nalini, A., Jenish, T., Jayarajan, J., Sendilvelan, S. (2021). Analysis of Cymbopogon citratus, Pinus sylvestris and Syzygium cumini biodiesel feedstocks for its fatty acid composition. Materials Today: Proceedings, 45, Part 7, 5970-5977.
Bhatia, I.S., Bajaj, K.L. (1975). Chemical constituents of the seeds and bark of Syzygium cumini. Planta Medica, 28(8), 346-352.
Binita, K., Kumar, S., Sharma, V.K., Sharma, V., Yadav, S. (2014). Proteomic identification of Syzygium cumini seed extracts by MALDI-TOF/MS. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 172, 2091-2105.
Bitencourt, P.E.R., Cargnelutti, L.O., Stein, C.S., Lautenchleger, R., Ferreira, L.M., Sangoi, M., Denardi, L., Borges, R.M., Boligon, A., Moresco, R.N., Cruz, L., Zanette, R.A., Alves, S.H., Moretto, M.B. (2017). Nanoparticle formulation increases Syzygium cumini antioxidant activity in Candida albicans-infected diabetic rats. Pharmaceutical Biology, 55(1), 1082-1088.
Chandrasekaran, M., Venkatesalu, V. (2004). Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Syzygium jambolanum seeds. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 91(1), 105-108.
Chaudhuri A.K.N., Pal, S., Gomes, A., Bhattacharya, S. (1990). Anti-inflammatory and related actions of S. cumini seed extract. Phytotherepia Research, 4(1), 5-10.
Cronin, P., Joyce, S.A., O’Toole, P.W., O’Connor, E.M., (2021). Dietary fibre modulates the gut microbiota. Nutrients, 13(5), art. no. 1655.
Daulatabad, C.M.J.D., Abdurrazzaque, M., Mirajkar, A.M., Hosamani, K.M., Mulla, G.M.M. (1988). Epoxy and cyclopropenoid fatty acids in Syzygium cuminii seed oil. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 43(1), 91-94.
De Sousa Sabino, L.B., de Brito, E.S., da Silva I.J., Júnior (2018). Jambolan - Syzygium jambolanum. In S. Rodrigues, E. de Oliveira Silva, E.S. de Brito (Eds.), Exotic Fruits, Academic Press, London, UK, pp. 251-256.
Deng, Y., Huang, L., Zhang, C., Xie, P., Cheng, J., Wang, X., Liu, L. (2020). Novel polysaccharide from Chaenomeles speciosa seeds: Structural characterization, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity evaluation. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 153, 755-766.
Devkar, R.V., Pandya, A.V., Shah, N.H. (2012). Protective role of Brassica olerecea and Eugenia jambolana extracts against H2O2 induced cytotoxicity in H9C2 cells. Food & Function, 3(8), 837-843.
Elhawary, S.S.E., kamal Eldin Elmotyam, A., kamel Alsayed, D., Zahran, E.M., Fouad, M.A., Sleem, A.A., Elimam, H., Rashed, M.H., Hayallah, A.M., Anber, F., Mohammed, A.F., Abdelmohsen, U.R. (2022). Cytotoxic and anti-diabetic potential, metabolic profiling and in silico studies of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels belonging to family Myrtaceae. Natural Product Research, 36(4), 1026-1030.
Faria, A.F., Marques, M.C., Mercadante, A.Z. (2011). Identification of bioactive compounds from jambolão (Syzygium cumini) and antioxidant capacity evaluation in different pH conditions. Food Chemistry, 126(4), 1571-1578.
Gajera, H.P., Gevariya, S.N., Hirpara, D.G., Patel, S.V., Golakiya, B.A. (2017). Antidiabetic and antioxidant functionality associated with phenolic constituents from fruit parts of indigenous black jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) landraces. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 54(10), 3180-3191.
Gajera, H.P., Gevariya, S.N., Patel, S.V., Golakiya, B.A. (2018). Nutritional profile and molecular fingerprints of indigenous black jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) landraces. Journal of Food Science & Technology, 55(2), 730-739.
Ghosh, P., Radhan, R.C., Mishra, S., Patel, A.S., Kar, A. (2017). Physicochemical and nutritional characterization of jamun (Syzygium cuminii). Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal, 5(1), 25-35.
Granado-Rodríguez, S., Aparicio, N., Matías, J., Pérez-Romero, L.F., Maestro, I., Gracés, I., Pedroche, J.J., Haros, C.M., Fernandez-Garcia, N., del Hierro, J.N., Martin, D., Bolaños, L., Reguera, M. (2021). Studying the impact of different field environmental conditions on seed quality of quinoa: the case of three different years changing seed nutritional traits in Southern Europe. Frontiers in Plant Science, 12, art. no. 649132.
Gupta, D.R., Agrawal, S.K. (1970). Chemical examination of the unsaponifiable matter of the seed fat of Syzgium cumini. Science and Culture, 36(5), 298.
Holscher, C. (2010). Incretin analogues that have been developed to treat type 2 diabetes hold promise as a novel treatment strategy for Alzheimer’s disease. Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery, 5(2), 109-117.
Indrayan, A.K., Sharma, S., Durgapaal, D., Kumar, N., Kumar, M. (2005). Determination of nutritive value and analysis of mineral elements for some medicinally valued plants from Uttaranchal. Current Science, 89(7), 1252-1255.
Jadeja, R.N., Thouaojam, M.C., Sankhari, J.M., Jain, M., Devkar, R.V., Ramachandran, A.V. (2012). Standardized flavonoid-rich Eugenia jambolana seed extract retards in vitro and in vivo LDL oxidation and expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin in atherogenic rats. Cardiovascular Toxicilogy, 12, 73-82.
Jamun Farming Information (Indian Black Plum) – AgriFarming.
Jasmine, R., Selvakumar, B.N., Daisy, P.S., Ignacimuthu, S. (2010). Activity of Eugenia jambolana, an ethnomedical plant, against drug-resistant bacteria. Pharmaceutical Biology, 48(4), 405-410.
Karamać, M. (2009). In-vitro study on the efficacy of tannin fractions of edible nuts as antioxidants. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 111(11), 1063-1071.
Kaur, L., Han, K.-S., Bains, K., Singh, H. (2011). Indian culinary plants enhance glucose-induced insulin secretion and glucose consumption in INS-1 β-cells and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Food Chemistry, 129(3), 1120-1125.
Kosaraju, J., Madhunapantula, S.R.V., Chinni, S., Khatwal, R.B., Dubala, A., Muthureddy Nataraj, S.K., Basavan, D. (2014). Dipeptydyl peptidase-4 inhibition by Pterocarpus marsupium and Eugenia Jambolana ameliorates streptozotocin induced Alzheimer’s disease. Behavioural Brain Research, 267, 55-65.
Kumar, A., Ilavarasan, R., Jayachandran, T., Deecaraman, M., Kumar, R.M., Aravindan, P., Krishan, M.R.V. (2008). Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini seed. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(8), 941-943. http://www.academicjournals.or....
Lee, J.J., Yoon, K.Y. (2022). Ultrasound-assisted extractions for improving the recovery of phenolics and charantin from bitter melon and for increasing the antioxidant, antidiabetic and anti-obesity activities of its extracts. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 72(2), 141-150.
Lestario, L.N., Howard, L.R., Brownmiller, C., Stebbins, N.B., Liyanage, R., Lay, J.O. (2017). Changes in polyphenolics during maturation of Java plum (Syzygium cumini Lam.). Food Research International, 100, Part 3, 395-391.
Liu, F., Liu, C., Liu, W., Ding, Z., Ma, H., Seeram, N.P., Xu, L., Mu, Y., Huang, X., Li, L. (2017a). New sesquiterpenoids from Eugenia jambolana seeds and their anti-microbial activities. Journal of Food and Agricultural Chemistry, 66, 10214-10222.
Liu, F., Ma, H., Wang, G., Liu, W., Seeram, N.P., Mu, Y., Xu, Y., Huang, X., Li, L. (2018). Phenolics from Eugenia jambolana seeds with advanced glycation endproduct formation and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Food & Function, 9(8), 4246-4254.
Liu, F., Yuan, T., Liu, W., Ma, H., Seeram, N.P., Li, Y., Xu, L., Mu, Y., Huang, X., Li, L. (2017b). Phloroglucinol derivatives with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activities from Eugenia jambolana seeds. Journal of Natural Products, 80(2), 544-550.
Mahindrakar, K.V., Rathod, V.K. (2020a). Ultrasonic assisted aqueous extraction of catechin and gallic acid from Syzygium cumini seed kernel and evaluation of total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity. Chemical Engineering and Processing – Process Intensification, 149, art. no. 107841.
Mahindrakar, K.V., Rathod, V.K. (2020b). Antidiabetic potential evaluation of aqueous extract of waste Syzygium cumini seed kernel’s by in vitro α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition. Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology, 51(6), 589-598.
Mahindrakar, K.V., Rathod, V.K. (2021). Valorization of waste Syzygium cumini seed kernels by three-phase partitioning extraction and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and hypoglycemic potential. Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology, 51(10), 1036-1045.
Martin, T.S., Ohtani, K., Kasai, R., Yamasaki, K. (1998). Lignan glucoside from Syzygium cumini. Natural Medicine, 52(4), 360-363.
Moussa, M.I.D., Alashi, A.M., Sossa-Vihotogbé, C.N., Akponikpè, P.B., Baco, M.N., Djènontin, A.J., Aluko, R.E., Akissoé, N.H. (2020). Proximate composition, mineral profile and trypsin-inhibitory activity of West African leafy vegetables: influence of urea micro-dosing and harvest time. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 70(2), 179-188.
Nahid, S., Mazumder, K., Rahman, Z., Islam, S., Rashid, M.H., Kerr, P.G. (2017). Cardio- and hepato-protective potential of methanolic extract of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels seeds: A diabetic rat model study. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 7(2), 126-133.
Oh, M.H., Yoon, K. (2018). Comparison of the biological activity of crude polysaccharide fractions obtained from Cedrela sinensis using different extraction methods. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 68(4), 327-334.
Omar, R., Li, L., Yuan, T., Seeram, N.P. (2012). α-Glucosidase inhibitory hydrolyzable tannins from Eugenia jambolana seeds. Journal of Natural Products, 75(8), 1505-1509.
Pandey, M., Khan, A. (2002). Hypoglycaemic effect of defatted seeds and water soluble fibre from the seeds of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) skeels in alloxan diabetic rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 40(10), 1178-1182.
Panghal, A., Kaur, R., Janghu, S., Sharma, P., Sharma, P., Chhikara, N. (2019). Nutritional, phytochemical, functional and sensorial attributes of Syzygium cumini L. pulp incorporated pasta. Food Chemistry, 289, 723-728.
Parmar, J., Sharma, P., Verma, P., Goyal, P.K. (2010). Chemopreventive action of Syzygium cumini on DMBA-induced skin papillomagenesis in mice. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 11(1), 261-265.
Parveen, S., Khan, A.A., Khan, Q.A. (2020). Antihyperlipidemic effect of seeds of jamun (Eugenia jambolana) in subjects of intermediate hyperglycemia: A pilot study. Traditional and Integrative Medicine, 5(4), 191-197.
Peixoto, M.P.G., Freitas, L.A.P. (2013). Spray-dried extracts from Syzygium cumini seeds: Physicochemical and biological evaluation. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia, 23(1), 145-152.
Prakash, A.K.S., Devaraj, E. (2019). Cytotoxic potentials of S. cumini methanolic seed kernel extract in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Environmental Toxicology, 34(12), 1313-1319.
Prince, P.S.M., Kamalakkannan, N., Menon, V.P. (2004). Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of alcoholic Syzigium cumini seeds in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 91(2-3), 209-213.
Puljula, E., Walton, G., Woodward, M.J., Karonen, M. (2020). Antimicrobial activities of ellagitannins against Clostridiales perfringens, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum and Staphylococcus aureus. Molecules, 25, art. no. 3714.
Ravi, K., Sekar, D., Subramanian, S. (2004a). Hypoglycemic activity of inorganic constituents in Eugenia jambolana seed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Biological Trace Element Research, 99, 145-155.
Ravi, K., Sivagnanam, K., Subramanian, S. (2004b). Anti-diabetic activity of Eugenia jambolana seed kernels on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Journal of Medicinal Food, 7(2), 187-191.
Ravi, K., Rajasekaran, S., Subramanian, S. (2005). Antihyperlipidemic effect of Eugenia jambolana seed kernel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 43(9), 1433-1439.
Ravi, K., Rajasekaran, S., Subramanian, S. (2003). Hypoglycemic effect of Eugenia jambolana seed kernels on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Pharmaceutical Biology, 41(8), 598-603.
Raza A., Butt, M.S., Iahtisham-Ul-Haq, Suleria, H.A.R. (2017). Jamun (Syzygium cumini) seed and fruit extract attenuate hyperglycemia in diabetic rats. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 7(8), 750-754.
Santos, C.A., Almeida, F.A., Quecán, B.X.V., Pereira, P.A.P., Gandra, M.M.B., Cunha, L.R., Pinto, U.M. (2020). Bioactive properties of Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels pulp and seed phenolic extracts. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11, art. no. 990.
Sawant, L., Singh, V.K., Dethe, S., Bhaskar, A., Balachandran, J., Mundkinajeddu, D., Agarwal, A. (2015). Aldose reductase and protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory active compounds from Syzygium cumini seeds. Pharmaceutical Biology, 53(8), 1176-1182.
Scharf, D.R., Simionatto, E.L., Kassuya, C.A.L., Stefanello, M.E.A. (2016). Essential oil from Eugenia jambolana seeds: Chemical composition and changes during storage. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 19(8), 2077-2082.
Sehwag, S., Das, M. (2016). Composition and functionality of whole jamun based functional confection. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(6), 2569-2579.
Sehwag, S., Upadhyay, R., Das, M. (2018). Optimization and multivariate accelerated shelf life testing (MASLT) of a low glycemic whole jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) confection with tailored quality and functional attributes. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 55(12), 4887–4900.
Seraglio, S.K.T., Schulz, M., Nehring, P., Betta, F.D., Valese, A.C., Daguer, H., Gonzaga, L.V., Fett, R., Costa, A.C.O. (2018). Nutritional and bioactive potential of Myrtaceae fruits during ripening. Food Chemistry, 239, 649-656.
Sharma, B., Balomajumder, C., Roy, P. (2008a). Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of flavonoid rich extract from Eugenia jambolana seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(7), 2376-2383.
Sharma, B., Viswanath, G., Salunke, R., Roy, P. (2008b). Effects of flavonoid-rich extract from seeds of Eugenia jambolana (L.) on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic mice. Food Chemistry, 110(3), 697-705.
Sharma, M., Li, L., Celver, J., Killian, C., Kovoor, A., Seeram, N.P., (2010). Effects of fruit ellagitannin extracts, ellagic acid, and their colonic metabolite, Urolithin A, on Wnt signaling. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(7), 3965-3969.
Sharma, S., Pathak, S., Gupta, G., Sharma, S.K., Singh, L., Sharma, R.K., Mishra, A., Dua, K. (2017). Pharmacological evaluation of aqueous extract of Syzigium cumini for its antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic properties in diabetic rats fed a high cholesterol diet—Role of PPARγ and PPARα. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 89, 447-453.
Sharma, S.B., Nasir, A., Prabhu, K.M., Murthy, P.S., Dev, G. (2003). Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of seeds of Eugenia jambolana in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 85(2-3), 201-206.
Sharma, S.B., Rajpoot, R., Nasir, A., Prabhu, K.M., Murthy, P.S. (2011a). Ameliorative effect of active principle isolated from seeds of Eugenia jambolana on carbohydrate metabolism in experimental diabetes. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, art. no. 789871.
Sharma, S.B., Tanwar, R.S., Nasir, A., Prabhu, K.M. (2011b). Antihyperlipidemic effect of active principle isolated from seed of Eugenia jambolana on alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Journal of Medicinal Food, 14(4), 353-359.
Shelke, G., Kad, V., Yenge, G., Desai, S., Kakde, S. (2020). Utilization of jamun pomace as functional ingredients to enhance the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of ice cream. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 44(10), art. no. e14736.
Shinde, J., Taldone, T., Barletta, M., Kunaparaju, N., Hu, B., Kumar, S., Placido, J., Zito, S.W. (2008). α-Glucosidase inhibitory activity of Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeels seed kernel in vitro and in Goto–Kakizaki (GK) rats. Carbohydrate Research, 343(7), 1278-1281.
Shrikanta, A., Kumar, A., Govindaswamy, V. (2015). Resveratrol content and antioxidant properties of underutilized fruits. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(1), 383-390.
Sidana, S., Singh, V.B., Meena, B.L., Beniwal, S., Singh, K., Kumar, D., Singla, R. (2017). Effect of Syzygium cumini (jamun) seed powder on glycemic control: A double–blind randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Society, 31(3), 185-189.
Singh, C.S., Paswan, V.K., Rai, D.C. (2019). Process optimization of spray dried jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) pulp powder. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 109, 1-6.
Singh, A., Kocher, G.S. (2020). Standardization of seed and peel infused Syzygium cumini –wine fermentation using response surface methodology. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 134, art. no. 109994.
Sisodia, S.S., Bhatnagar, M. (2009). Hepatoprotective activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride treated rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 41(1), 23-27.
Sridhar, S.B., Sheetal, U.D., Pai, M.R., Shastri, M.S. (2005). Preclinical evaluation of the antidiabetic effect of Eugenia jambolana seed powder in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Brazilian Journal of Medicinal and Biological Research, 38(3), 463-468.
Syama, H.P., Arun, K.B., Sinumol, G., Dhanya, R., Anusree, S.S., Nisha, P., Shankar, L.R., Sundaresan, A., Jayamurthy, P. (2018). Syzygium cumini seed exhibits antidiabetic potential via multiple pathways involving inhibition of α-glucosidase, DPP-IV, glycation, and ameliorating glucose uptake in L6 cell lines. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 42(2), art. no. e13464.
Tan, M., Zhao, Q., Zhao, B. (2021). Physicochemical properties, structural characterization and biological activities of polysaccharides from quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) seeds. Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 193, Part B, 1635-1644.
Thiyagarajan, G., Muthukumaran, P., Kumar, B.S., Muthusamy, V.S., Lakshmi, B.S. (2016). Selective inhibition of PTP1B by vitalboside A from Syzygium cumini enhances insulin sensitivity and attenuates lipid accumulation via partial agonism to PPARc: In vitro and in silico investigation. Chemical Biology & Drug Design, 88(2), 302–312.
Ud Din, S., Jaskani, M.J., Naqvi, S.A., Awan, F.S. (2020). Diversity and divergence in domesticated and wild jamun (Syzygium cumini) genotypes of Pakistan. Scientia Horticulturae, 273, art. no. 109617.
Ulla, A., Alam, M.A., Sikder, B., Sumi, F.A., Rahman, M.M., Habib, Z.F., Mohammed, M.K., Subhan, N., Hossain, H., Reza, H.M. (2017). Supplementation of Syzygium cumini seed powder prevented obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in high carbohydrate high fat diet induced obese rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 17(1), art. no. 289.
VenuGopal, K.S., Anu-Appaiah, K.A. (2017). Seed incorporation during vinification and its impact on chemical and organoleptic properties in Syzygium cumini wine. Food Chemistry, 237, 693-700.
Vijayanand, P., Jagan Mohan Rao, L., Narasimham, P. (2001). Volatile flavour components of jamun fruit (Syzygium cumini L). Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 16 (1), 47-49.<47::AID-FFJ944>3.0.CO;2-L.
Yadav, M., Lavania, A., Tomar, R., Prasad, G.B.K.S., Jain, S., Yadav, H. (2010). Complementary and comparative study on hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of various extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed, Momordica charantia fruits, Gymnema sylvestre, and Trigonella foenum graecum seeds in rats. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 160, 2388-2400.
Yadav, S.S., Meshram, G.A., Shinde, D., Patil, R.C., Manohar, S.M., Upadhye, M.V. (2011). Antibacterial and anticancer activity of bioactive fraction of Syzygium cumini L. seeds. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 18(3), 118-122.
Yadav, A.K., Saraswat, S., Sirohi, P., Rani, M., Srivastava, S., Singh, M.P., Singh, N.K. (2017). Antimicrobial action of methanolic seed extracts of Syzygium cumini Linn. on Bacillus subtilis. AMB Express, 7, art. no. 196.
Żary-Sikorska, E., Fotschki, B., Kosmala, M., Milala, J., Matusevicius, P., Rawicka, A., Juśkiewicz, J. (2021). Strawberry polyphenol-rich fractions can mitigate disorders in gastrointestinal tract and liver functions caused by a high-fructose diet in experimental rats. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 71(4), 423-440.