Nutritional quality, potential health promoting properties and sensory perception of an improved gluten free bread formulation containing inulin, rice protein and bioactive compounds extracted from coffee byproducts
More details
Hide details
Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences (DiSAFA),, University of Turin, Italy
Food Analysis and Bioactivity, Institute of Food Science Research [CIAL, CSIC-UAM], Spain
Bioactivity and Food Analysis, Institute of Food Science Research (CIAL, UAM- CSIC), Spain
Dolores del Castillo   

Bioactivity and Food Analysis, Institute of Food Science Research (CIAL, UAM- CSIC), Nicolás Cabrera 9, 28049, Madrid, Spain
Online publish date: 2019-03-11
Submission date: 2018-11-27
Final revision date: 2019-01-28
Acceptance date: 2019-02-21
The present study aimed to improve the formulation of a gluten-free commercial bread-making premix by adding inulin, rice protein and extracts of coffee by-products (silverskin and husk) to obtain healthier products enriched in protein and dietary fiber with the potential to reduce the risk of chronic diseases. The new formulation combines well-known and novel food ingredients. To validate the novel ingredients, we determined the physicochemical characterization, caffeine and chlorogenic acid contents and food safety of coffee silverskin (CSE) and husk (CHE) extracts. Sensory and nutritional quality, bioactive compounds (chlorogenic acid, total phenolic compounds, melanoidins and browning), in vitro bioaccessibility and health-promoting properties (overall antioxidant capacity and α-glucosidase activity) of the breads were evaluated. Results support the feasibility of CSE and CHE as natural sustainable sources of antioxidants, α-glucosidase inhibitors and colorants. The observed health-promoting properties suggest that coffee by-product extracts could potentially be used as functional food ingredients or supplements to reduce the risk of chronic diseases associated with oxidative stress and to control postprandial glucose levels. Based on consumers’ preferences, we obtained new bread formulations with high nutritional and sensorial quality, suitable for celiacs and with the potential to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal disease related to oxidative stress. Data on in vitro digestion indicated a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the bioaccessibility of sugars and a significant increase (p <0.05) in antioxidants.
Açar, Ö.Ç., Gökmen, V., Pellegrini, N., Fogliano, V. (2009). Direct evaluation of the total antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted pulses, nuts and seeds. European Food Research and Technology, 229(6), 961–969. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217....
AACC Method 32-07. Determination of Soluble, Insoluble and Total Dietary Fiber in Foods and Food Products. Approved Methods of the American Association of Cereal Chemists, 9th ed. The Association, St. Paul, MN, 1995.
AOAC Method 991.43. Total, Insoluble and Soluble Dietary Fiber in Food—Enzymatic Gravimetric Method, MES-TRIS Buffer. Official Methods of Analysis, 16th ed. AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD, 1995.
AOAC No. 32.1.22. Official method 920.87. Protein (total) in flour, Final Action. In: Cunniff, P. (ed.): Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. 16th ed. Arlington, Virginia : AOAC International, 1995, p. 12.
Ballesteros, L.F., Teixeira, J.A., Mussatto, S.I. (2014). Chemical, functional, and structural properties of spent coffee grounds and coffee Silverskin. Food Bioprocessing Technology, 7(12), 3493-3503. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11947....
Berthelot, K., Delmotte, F.M. (1999). Purification and characterization of an alpha-glucosidase from Rhizobium sp. (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) strain USDA 4280. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65(7), 2907–2911.
Bresciani, L., Calani, L., Bruni, R., Brighenti, F., Del Rio, D. (2014). Phenolic composition, caffeine content and antioxidant capacity of coffee silverskin. Food Research International, 61, SI, 196–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food....
Conte, P., Fadda, C., Drabińska, N., Krupa-Kozak, U. (2019). Technological and nutritional challenges, and novelty in gluten-free breadmaking: a review. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 69(1), 5-21. https://doi.org/10.31883/pjfns....
Contini, M., Baccelloni, S., Massantini, R., Anelli, G. (2008). Extraction of natural antioxidants from hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) shell and skin wastes by long maceration at room temperature. Food Chemistry, 110(3), 659–669. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food....
del Castillo, M.D., Ibáñez, ME, Amigo, M., Herrero, M., Plaza del Moral, M., Ullate, M. (2013). Aplication of products of coffee silverskin in anti-ageing cosmetics and functional food. Patent no. WO 2013/004873.
del Castillo, M.D., Fernandez-Gomez, B., Ullate, M. and Mesa, M.D. (2014). Use of coffee husk products for the prevention and treatment of the pathologies that make up the metabolic syndrome ad its metabolic factors risk. Patent no. P201431848.
del Castillo, M.D., Fernandez-Gomez, B., Martinez-Saez, N., Iriondo-DeHond, A., Martirosyan, D.M., Mesa, M.D. (2016). Coffee silverskin extract for aging and chronic diseases. In D.M. Martirosyan (Ed.), Functional Foods In Health And Disease, First ed., San Diego: Functional Food Center Inc., pp. 389–409.
del Castillo, M.D., Fernandez-Gomez, B., Martinez-Saez, N., Iriondo-DeHond, A., Mesa, M.D. (2019). Coffee By-Products. In A. Farah (Ed.), Coffee: Chemistry, Quality and Health Implications, First ed., RSC Publishing Inc., pp.309-334. https://doi.org/10.1039/978178....
EFSA, Scientific Opinion on the Safety of Caffeine. (2015). EFSA Journal, 13(5), 4102.
European Parliament Regulation (EC) N. 1924/2006. (2006). On nutrition and health claims made on foods. Official Journal of the European Union.
European Parliament Regulation (EC) 123/2005. (2005). As regards Ochratoxin. Official Journal of the European Union.
Fernandez-Gomez, B., Lezama, A., Amigo-Benavent, M., Ullate, M., Herrero, M., Martín, M.A., Mesa, M.D., del Castillo, M.D. (2016). Insights on the health benefits of the bioactive compounds of coffee silverskin extract. Journal of Functional Foods, 25, 197–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.....
Garcia-Serna, E., Martinez-Saez, N., Mesias, M., Morales, F.J., Castillo, M.D. del. (2014). Use of coffee silverskin and stevia to improve the formulation of biscuits. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 64(4), 243–251. https://doi.org/10.2478/pjfns-....
Giuberti, G., Gallo, A., Cerioli, C., Fortunati, P., Masoero, F. (2015). Cooking quality and starch digestibility of gluten free pasta using new bean flour. Food Chemistry, 175, 43–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food....
Gouvea, B. M., Torres, C., Franca, A.S., Oliveira, L.S., Oliveira, E.S. (2009). Feasibility of ethanol production from coffee husks. Biotechnology Letters, 31(9), SI, 1315–1319. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10529....
Hollebeeck, S., Borlon, F., Schneider, Y.J., Larondelle, Y., Rogez, H. (2013). Development of a standardised human in vitro digestion protocol based on macronutrient digestion using response surface methodology. Food Chemistry, 138(2-3), 1936–1944. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food....
Iriondo-DeHond, A., Aparicio García, N., Fernández-Gomez, B., Guisantes-Batán, E., Velazquez Escobar, F., San Andres, M.I., Sanchez-Fortun, S., Blanch, G.P., del Castillo, M.D. (2018). Validation of coffee by-products as novel food ingredients. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 51, 194-204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifse....
Martinez-Saez, N., García, A.T., Pérez, I.D., Rebollo-Hernanz, M., Mesías, M., Morales, F.J., del Castillo, M.D. (2017). Use of spent coffee grounds as food ingredient in bakery products. Food Chemistry, 216, 114–122. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food....
Masuko, T., Minami, A., Iwasaki, N., Majima, T., Nishimura, S.I., Lee, Y.C. (2005). Carbohydrate analysis by a phenol–sulfuric acid method in microplate format. Analytical Biochemistry, 339(1), 69–72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2....
Matos, M.E., Rosell, C.M. (2012). Relationship between instrumental parameters and sensory characteristics in gluten-free breads. European Food Research and Technology, 235(1), 107–117. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217....
Mesías, M., Navarro, M., Martínez-Saez, N., Ullate, M., del Castillo, M.D., Morales, F.J. (2014). Antiglycative and carbonyl trapping properties of the water soluble fraction of coffee silverskin. Food Research International, 62, 1120–1126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food....
Métayer, S., Seiliez, I., Collin, A., Duchêne, S., Mercier, Y., Geraert, P.A., Tesseraud, S. (2008). Mechanisms through which sulfur amino acids control protein metabolism and oxidative status. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 19(4), 207–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnut....
Michalska, A., Amigo-Benavent, M., Zielinski, H., del Castillo, M.D. (2008). Effect of bread making on formation of Maillard reaction products contributing to the overall antioxidant activity of rye bread. Journal of Cereal Science, 48(1), 123–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.....
Moreira, A.S.P., Nunes, F.M., Domingues, M.R., Coimbra, M.A. (2012). Coffee melanoidins: structures, mechanisms of formation and potential health impacts. Food & Function, 3(9), 903–915. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2fo30....
Murthy, P.S., Madhava Naidu, M. (2012). Sustainable management of coffee industry by-products and value addition - A review. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 66, 45–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resc....
Narita, Y., Inouye, K. (2014). Review on utilization and composition of coffee silverskin. Food Research International, 61, SI, 16–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food....
Oboh, G., Agunloye, O.M., Adefegha, S.A., Akinyemi, A.J., Ademiluyi, A.O. (2015). Caffeic and chlorogenic acids inhibit key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (in vitro): a comparative study. Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology, 26(2), 165–170. https://doi.org/10.1515/jbcpp-....
Oki, T., Nagai, S., Yoshinaga, M., Nishiba, Y., Suda, I. (2006). Contribution of beta-carotene to radical scavenging capacity varies among orange-fleshed sweet potato cultivars. Food Science and Technology Research, 12(2), 156–160. https://doi.org/10.3136/fstr.1....
Padalino, L., Conte, A., Del Nobile, M.A. (2016). Overview on the general approaches to improve gluten-free pasta and bread. Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 5(4), art. no. 87. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods5....
Pourfarzad, A., Mahdavian-Mehr, H., Sedaghat, N. (2013). Coffee silverskin as a source of dietary fiber in bread-making: Optimization of chemical treatment using response surface methodology. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 50(2), 599-606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.....
Rizzello, C.G., Montemurro, M., Gobbetti, M. (2016). Characterization of the bread made with durum wheat semolina rendered gluten free by sourdough biotechnology in comparison with commercial gluten-free products. Journal of Food Science, 81(9), H2263–H2272. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3....
Rodriguez-Amaya, D.B. (2016). Natural food pigments and colorants. Current Opinion in Food Science, 7, 20–26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cofs....
Rupasinghe Vasantha, H.P., Wang, L., Huber, G.M., Pitts, N.L. (2008). Effect of baking on dietary fibre and phenolics of muffins incorporated with apple skin powder. Food Chemistry, 107(3), 1217-1224.
Scazzina, F., Dall’Asta, M., Pellegrini, N., Brighenti, F. (2015). Glycaemic index of some commercial gluten-free foods. European Journal of Nutrition, 54(6), 1021–1026. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394....
Silván, J.M., Morales, F.J., Saura-Calixto, F. (2010). Conceptual study on maillardized dietary fiber in coffee. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(23), 12244–12249. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf1024....
Soong, Y.Y., Tan, S.P., Leong, L.P., Henry, J.K. (2014). Total antioxidant capacity and starch digestibility of muffins baked with rice, wheat, oat, corn and barley flour. Food Chemistry, 164, 462–469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food....
Toschi, T.G., Cardenia, V., Bonaga, G., Mandrioli, M., Rodriguez-estrada, M.T. (2014). Coffee Silverskin : characterization , possible uses , and safety aspects. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(44), 10836–10844. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf5032....
Turco, I., Bacchetti, T., Bender, C., Zimmermann, B., Oboh, G., Ferretti, G. (2016). Polyphenol content and glycemic load of pasta enriched with Faba bean flour. Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 6(5), 291-305. https://doi.org/10.31989/ffhd.....
Wang, Z., Liu, Y., Li, H., Yang, L. (2016). Rice proteins, extracted by alkali and α-amylase, differently affect in vitro antioxidant activity. Food Chemistry, 206, 137–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.food....
WHO. (2003). Food based dietary guidelines in the WHO European Region.