Pigmented Maize (Zea mays L.) Contains Anthocyanins with Potential Therapeutic Action Against Oxidative Stress - A Review
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Instituto de Investigación en Enfermedades Crónico Degenerativas. Instituto Transdisciplinar de Investigación e Innovación en Salud. Departamento de Biología Molecular y Genómica. Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud., Universidad de Guadalajara, C. Sierra Mojada 950, Col. Independencia, C. P. 44350, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México
Departamento de Ingeniería Genética, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Unidad Irapuato, Libramiento Norte Km. 9.6, C. P. 36824, Irapuato Guanajuato, México
Laboratorio Nacional PlanTECC, Libramiento Norte Km 9.6, C. P. 36824 Irapuato, Guanajuato, México
Carmen Magdalena Gurrola Díaz   

Instituto de Investigación en Enfermedades Crónico Degenerativas. Instituto Transdisciplinar de Investigación e Innovación en Salud. Departamento de Biología Molecular y Genómica. Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud., Universidad de Guadalajara, Sierra Mojada 950 Independencia Oriente, 44350, Guadalajara, Mexico
Online publish date: 2019-11-15
Submission date: 2019-05-23
Final revision date: 2019-10-15
Acceptance date: 2019-10-22
Different maize (Zea mays L.) varieties have been used for thousands of years as a healthy food source in Mesoamerica including pigmented maize. Maize ingestion could contribute to the reduction in the rate of non-communicable diseases and, in turn, to its function as an adjuvant in their management. These diseases are mainly associated with oxidative stress, which is characterized by a redox cell imbalance produced due to pro-oxidant molecules accumulation, inducing irreversible damages. Although the endogenous antioxidant defense system is efficient, exogenous antioxidants are necessary to help to prevent this damage. Bioactive compounds, like anthocyanins, contained in dietary plants exert a major activity against oxidative stress. Could the maize anthocyanins play a curative, preventive or complementary role in the treatment of chronic diseases? Here, we describe the occurrence of anthocyanins from pigmented maize and their chemical structures. Furthermore, the biosynthesis, bioavailability, and stability are also summarized. Finally, many in vitro and in vivo studies of maize anthocyanins are discussed that demonstrated their nutraceutical potential, antioxidant capacity, and other biological effects. Given the importance of the biological properties of maize anthocyanins, it is necessary to understand the current knowledge and propose further research or clinical studies which allows us to better elucidate the biological mechanism of maize anthocyanins derivatives of several varieties and processes of cooking and combination with other ingredients to enhance their nutritional and health benefits.
We thank Pedro M. García-López (CUCBA, University of Guadalajara), Andres Estrada Luna and Norma Cecilia Morales Elias for technical support. We also thank Francisco Orozco Montes, Adrian Garcia Casarrubias, Edgar Cubedo Lopez, Sheila Juarez Colunga, Jesus Ruben Torres Garcia, Alberto Camas Reyes and Julio Armando Massange-Sanchez for their help.
This work was supported by grants from the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT Mexico) to AT. We acknowledge support from the National Laboratory PlanTECC, Problemas Nacionales e Infraestructura. We further acknowledge initial funding grants by SAGARPA through CIMMYT and the MasAgro initiative. CONACYT. PN2015-613, LN2018-293362.
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