Search for Author, Title, Keyword
Proposed Use of a Polyvinyl Alcohol with Grape Pomace Extract as an Edible Coating for Strawberries
More details
Hide details
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kirklareli University, 39100 Kirklareli, Turkey
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Tekirdag Namik Kemal University, 59030 Tekirdag, Turkey
Submission date: 2022-12-31
Acceptance date: 2023-04-24
Online publication date: 2023-05-25
Publication date: 2023-05-25
Corresponding author
Tuncay Gümüş   

Food Engineering, Tekirdag Namık Kemal University, Turkey
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2023;73(2):151–162
Strawberries rich nutrition, flavor, and aroma profiles make them popular. Many studies have tried to extend strawberries shelf life. In the current study, grape pomace extract (GPE) was combined with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and used to extend the shelf life of strawberries. Ascorbic acid content, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activity determinations showed that PVA/GPE-coated strawberries were superior to the uncoated fruits during storage. Total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (TMAB) and yeast/mold counts in the uncoated strawberries were 2 and 2.68 log cfu/g at the start of storage, respectively, and 9.8 and 14.00 log cfu/g after 16 days of storage, respectively. Strawberries coated with the PVA solution with 2.5% (w/v) GPE showed 32% and 25% less TMAB and yeast/mold counts, respectively, at the end of storage. The PVA/GPE-coated strawberries showed significantly higher firmness compared to the control fruit. The PVA/GPE coating improved strawberry shelf life and functional properties.
The authors acknowledge Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nagehan Desen Köycü for sharing a culture of Botrytis cinerea 12c.
The research received no external funding.
The Authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.
Ali, S., Khan, A.S., Nawaz, A., Anjum, M.A., Naz, S., Ejaz, S., Hussain, S. (2019). Aloe vera gel coating delays postharvest browning and maintains quality of harvested litchi fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 157, art. no. 110960.
Amal, S.A., El-Mogy, M., Aboul-Anean, H., Alsanius, B. (2010). Improving strawberry fruit storability by edible coating as a carrier of thymol or calcium chloride. Journal of Horticultural Science & Ornamental Plants, 2(3), 88-97.
Andrade, J., González-Martínez, C., Chiralt, A. (2021). Effect of phenolic acids on the properties of films from Poly (vinyl alcohol) of different molecular characteristics. Food Packaging and Shelf Life, 29, art. no. 100711.
Armghan Khalid, M., Niaz, B., Saeed, F., Afzaal, M., Islam, F., Hussain, M., Mahwish, Muhammad Salman Khalid, H., Siddeeg, A., Al-Farga, A. (2022). Edible coatings for enhancing safety and quality attributes of fresh produce: A comprehensive review. International Journal of Food Properties, 25(1), 1817-1847.
Ayranci, E., Tunc, S. (2003). A method for the measurement of the oxygen permeability and the development of edible films to reduce the rate of oxidative reactions in fresh foods. Food Chemistry, 80(3), 423-431.
Bouchra, C., Achouri, M., Hassani, L.I., Hmamouchi, M. (2003). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of seven Moroccan Labiatae against Botrytis cinerea Pers: Fr. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 89(1), 165-169.
Cordenunsi, B.R., Genovese, M.I., do Nascimento, J.R.O., Hassimotto, N.M.A., dos Santos, R.J., Lajolo, F.M. (2005). Effects of temperature on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of three strawberry cultivars. Food Chemistry, 91(1), 113-121.
Ding, J., Zhang, R., Ahmed, S., Liu, Y., Qin, W. (2019). Effect of sonication duration in the performance of polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan bilayer films and their effect on strawberry preservation. Molecules, 24(7), 1408.
Duarte, L.G.R., Picone, C.S.F. (2022). Antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin-chitosan-gellan nanoparticles and their influence on strawberry preservation. Food Research International, 159, art. no. 111586.
Fawole, O.A., Riva, S.C., Opara, U.L. (2020). Efficacy of edible coatings in alleviating shrivel and maintaining quality of Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) during export and shelf life conditions. Agronomy, 10(7), art. no. 1023.
Giampieri, F., Tulipani, S., Alvarez-Suarez, J.M., Quiles, J.L., Mezzetti, B., Battino, M. (2012). The strawberry: Composition, nutritional quality, and impact on human health. Nutrition, 28(1), 9-19.
Gol, N.B., Patel, P.R., Rao, T.V.R. (2013). Improvement of quality and shelf-life of strawberries with edible coatings enriched with chitosan. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 85, 185-195.
Hassan, Y.I., Kosir, V., Yin, X., Ross, K., Diarra, M.S. (2019). Grape pomace as a promising antimicrobial alternative in feed: A critical review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 67(35), 9705-9718.
Hernandez-Munoz, P., Almenar, E., Del Valle, V., Velez, D., Gavara, R. (2008). Effect of chitosan coating combined with postharvest calcium treatment on strawberry (Fragaria× ananassa) quality during refrigerated storage. Food Chemistry, 110(2), 428-435.
Jafarzadeh, S., Nafchi, A.M., Salehabadi, A., Oladzad-Abbasabadi, N., Jafari, S.M. (2021). Application of bio-nanocomposite films and edible coatings for extending the shelf life of fresh fruits and vegetables. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 291, art. no. 102405.
Kamer, D.D.A., Kaynarca, G.B., Yücel, E., Gümüş, T. (2022). Development of gelatin/PVA based colorimetric films with a wide pH sensing range winery solid by-product (Vinasse) for monitor shrimp freshness. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 220, 627-637.
Kaur, K., Kumar, A. (2022). Enhancement of strawberry shelf life with coating: A review. Modern Phytomorphology, 16(2), 44-48.
Kaynarca, G.B., Gümüş, T., Kamer, D.D.A. (2022). Rheological properties of fish (Sparus aurata) skin gelatin modified by agricultural wastes extracts. Food Chemistry, 393, art. no. 133348.
Kaynarca, G.B., Kamer, D.D.A., Gumus, T., Sagdıc, O. (2023). Characterization of poly (vinyl alcohol)/gelatin films made with winery solid by-product (vinasse) extract. Food Packaging and Shelf Life, 35, art. no. 101013.
Khodaei, D., Hamidi-Esfahani, Z. (2019). Influence of bioactive edible coatings loaded with Lactobacillus plantarum on physicochemical properties of fresh strawberries. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 156, art, no. 110944.
Khodaei, D., Hamidi-Esfahani, Z., Rahmati, E. (2021). Effect of edible coatings on the shelf-life of fresh strawberries: A comparative study using TOPSIS-Shannon entropy method. NFS Journal, 23, 17-23.
Lapornik, B., Prošek, M., Wondra, A.G. (2005). Comparison of extracts prepared from plant by-products using different solvents and extraction time. Journal of Food Engineering, 71(2), 214-222.
Liu, C., Jin, T., Liu, W., Hao, W., Yan, L., Zheng, L. (2021). Effects of hydroxyethyl cellulose and sodium alginate edible coating containing asparagus waste extract on postharvest quality of strawberry fruit. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 148, art. no. 111770.
Liu, Y., Wang, S., Lan, W., Qin, W. (2017). Fabrication and testing of PVA/Chitosan bilayer films for strawberry packaging. Coatings, 7(8), art no. 109.
Macheix, J.J., Fleuriet, A., Billot, J. (1990). Changes and metabolism of phenolic compounds in fruits. In Macheix, J.J. (Ed.). Fruit Phenolics. 1st Edition. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, ABD, pp. 149-239.
Makris, D.P., Boskou, G., Andrikopoulos, N.K. (2007). Polyphenolic content and in vitro antioxidant characteristics of wine industry and other agri-food solid waste extracts. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20(2), 125-132.
Matar, C., Guillard, V., Gauche, K., Costa, S., Gontard, N., Guilbert, S., Gaucel, S. (2020). Consumer behaviour in the prediction of postharvest losses reduction for fresh strawberries packed in modified atmosphere packaging. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 163, art. no. 111119.
Mendoza, L., Yañez, K., Vivanco, M., Melo, R., Cotoras, M. (2013). Characterization of extracts from winery by-products with antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea. Industrial Crops and Products, 43, 360-364.
Mohammadi, L., Ramezanian, A., Tanaka, F., Tanaka, F. (2021). Impact of Aloe vera gel coating enriched with basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil on postharvest quality of strawberry fruit. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 15(1), 353-362.
Moreira, B.R., Pereira-Junior, M.A., Fernandes, K.F., Batista, K.A. (2020). An ecofriendly edible coating using cashew gum polysaccharide and polyvinyl alcohol. Food Bioscience, 37, art. no. 100722.
Parin, F.N., Terzioğlu, P., Sicak, Y., Yildirim, K., Öztürk, M. (2021). Pine honey–loaded electrospun poly (vinyl alcohol)/gelatin nanofibers with antioxidant properties. The Journal of The Textile Institute, 112(4), 628-635.
Pavlath, A., Orts, W. (2009). Edible films and coatings: Why, what, and how?. In Embuscado, M.E., Huber, K.C. (Eds.). Edible Films and Coatings for Food Applications.Vol. 9, Springer New York, NY, pp.1-23.
Peixoto, C.M., Dias, M.I., Alves, M.J., Calhelha, R.C., Barros, L., Pinho, S.P., Ferreira, I.C. (2018). Grape pomace as a source of phenolic compounds and diverse bioactive properties. Food Chemistry, 253, 132-138.
Petriccione, M., Mastrobuoni, F., Pasquariello, M.S., Zampella, L., Nobis, E., Capriolo, G., Scortichini, M. (2015). Effect of chitosan coating on the postharvest quality and antioxidant enzyme system response of strawberry fruit during cold storage. Foods, 4(4), 501-523.
Pineli, L.D.D., Moretti, C.L., dos Santos, M.S., Campos, A.B., Brasileiro, A.V., Cordova, A.C., Chiarello, M.D. (2011). Antioxidants and other chemical and physical characteristics of two strawberry cultivars at different ripeness stages. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 24, 11-16.
Rasouli, M., Saba, M.K., Ramezanian, A. (2019). Inhibitory effect of salicylic acid and Aloe vera gel edible coating on microbial load and chilling injury of orange fruit. Scientia Horticulturae, 247, 27-34.
Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M., Rice-Evans, C. (1999). Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 26(9-10), 1231-1237.
Ren, T., Gan, J., Zhou, L., Chen, H. (2020). Physically crosslinked hydrogels based on poly (vinyl alcohol) and fish gelatin for wound dressing application: Fabrication and characterization. Polymers, 12(8), art. no. 1729.
Riaz, A., Aadil, R.M., Amoussa, A.M.O., Bashari, M., Abid, M., Hashim, M.M. (2021). Application of chitosan‐based apple peel polyphenols edible coating on the preservation of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa cv Hongyan) fruit. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 45(1), art. no. e15018.
Rockenbach, I.I., Rodrigues, E., Gonzaga, L.V., Caliari, V., Genovese, M.I., Gonçalves, A.E.D.S.S., Fett, R. (2011). Phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity in pomace from selected red grapes (Vitis vinifera L. and Vitis labrusca L.) widely produced in Brazil. Food Chemistry, 127(1), 174-179.
Sayyari, M., Esna‐Ashari, M., Tarighi, T.H. (2022). Impacts of salicylic acid, chitosan, and salicyloyl chitosan on quality preservation and microbial load reduction in strawberry fruits during cold storage. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 46(7), art. no. e16710.
Tahir, H.E., Xiaobo, Z., Jiyong, S., Mahunu, G.K., Zhai, X., Mariod, A.A. (2018). Quality and postharvest‐shelf life of cold‐stored strawberry fruit as affected by gum arabic (Acacia senegal) edible coating. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 42(3), art. no. e12527.
Ueda, J.M., Pedrosa, M.C., Heleno, S.A., Carocho, M., Ferreira, I.C.F.R., Barros, L. (2022). Food additives from fruit and vegetable by-products and bio-residues: A comprehensive review focused on sustainability. Sustainability, 14(9), art. no. 5212.
Vahid, B. (2012). Titrimetric determination of ascorbic acid contents in plant samples by 2, 6-dichlorophenolindophenol method. Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan, 34(6), 1510-1512.
Wrolstad, R.E. (1993). Color and pigment analyses in fruit products. Station Bulletin, 624, 1-17.
Yan, J., Luo, Z., Ban, Z., Lu, H., Li, D., Yang, D., Aghdam, M.S., Li, L. (2019). The effect of the layer-by-layer (LBL) edible coating on strawberry quality and metabolites during storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 147, 29-38.
Yıldırım-Yalçın, M., Şeker, M., Sadıkoğlu, H. (2022). Effect of grape derivatives and cross-linked maize starch coatings on the storage life of strawberry fruit. Progress in Organic Coatings, 167, art. no. 106850.
Zhao, L., Liu, Y., Zhao, L., Wang, Y. (2022). Anthocyanin-based pH-sensitive smart packaging films for monitoring food freshness. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 9, art, no. 100340.
Characterization of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity and Phenolic Compound Profile of Extracts from Seeds of Different Vitis Species
Luisa Pozzo, Teresa Grande, Andrea Raffaelli, Vincenzo Longo, Stanisław Weidner, Ryszard Amarowicz, Magdalena Karamać