Total Antioxidant Capacity and Its Dietary Sources and Seasonal Variability in Diets of Women with Different Physical Activity Levels
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Publication date: 2014-12-31
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2014;64(4):267–276
Increased physical activity induces oxidative stress and utilization of dietary antioxidants. Information on dietary sources of antioxidants in diets are limited. We aimed to analyse of the antioxidant potential, seasonal variation and dietary sources in the diets of women exercising and not exercising regularly. We studied 48 women: 25 regularly exercising (FIT) and 23 not exercising regularly (NFIT). 192 seasonal recalls were collected regarding the consumption of dietary sources of antioxidant compounds in spring, summer, autumn and winter. A food frequency questionnaire was used. For each season, the total density of the antioxidant diet (Q-ORAC in μmolTE/1000kcal) was calculated. The main sources of antioxidants in women’s diets (FIT+NFIT) were fruit (32.1% of total supply), vegetables (11.5%), tea (9.3%), dark chocolate (5.7%), and sweets in total (1.9%) and red wine (1.1%). The Q-ORAC of women’s diets (FIT+NFIT) significantly depended on the season (p<0.001) and were highest in the summer (23444μmolTE/1000kcal) and lowest in the spring (13978 μmolTE/1000kcal). Higher differences in the Q-ORAC between seasons were observed in FIT women (Q-ORAC quotients from 0.8 to 1.9) than NFIT women (from 0.9 to 1.2). The Q-ORAC of FIT and NFIT women diet did not differ significantly in any season or average per year (18078 vs. 18775 μmolTE/1000kcal, respectively; p>0.05). The total antioxidant density of women diets and consumption of dietary sources of antioxidants was not related to their physical activity. All of the women were characterized by seasonal variation in consumption, which was higher in active than inactive women.