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Publication date: 2007-12-31
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2007;57(Special issue 4B):333-337
The goal of this research was to evaluate the influence of different growing technologies (conventional and organic) and germination duration on the activity of wheat grain enzymes. Germinated and non-germinated for food wheat grain cultivars “Širvinta-1“ and “Zentos” were researched. Wheat samples were selected from the year 2004 harvest, grown in the Centre of Agro Ecology of Lithuanian University of Agriculture. Organically grown wheat grain has been fertilised with one dose of organic mixture 30 t/ha (50 % manure and 50 % straw), whereas that conventionally grown with nitrogen N60=200 kg/ha in spring and additionally with the same dose in the summer. Besides, in June leaves were sprayed with fertiliser (N15=30 kg/ha). Later the soil was fertilised with carbamate (46.2 %) – 30 kg/ha. In conventional farm, grain were pickled with 25 concentration pickle Maksim 1 kg/ha before sowing. Growing regulator Cicocel (750 g/L) – 1 L/ha was used at maturation. Antidisease spray Falkon (460 g/L) 0.5 L/ha was used at the time of vegetation. No pesticide or growing regulators were used in organic farm. Enzymes α- and β-amylase activity research was carried out in non-germinated (control) and germinated for 12, 24, 36 and 48 h wheat grain. The activity of catalase, xylanase, cellulase, maltase and protease was established in the grain germinated for two days. The data were processed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) using statistical program STAT ENG (2000 m.). Student and Fisher tests were used for comparison of mean values obtained. Enzyme amount determination results were estimated applying dispersal analysis method, determining averages of data, confidence intervals (±) and the index of the least significantly differences (R.05) to factor A (enzyme activity in organically grown wheat grain), for factor B (enzyme activity in conventionally grown wheat grain) and its interface AB with 95% of confidence probability level. The research results proved that hydrolases activity in organically grown wheat, both germinated and non-germinated, was higher than in conventionally grown wheat, with the exception of enzyme of cellulase, the activity of which was about 17% less in organically grown wheat. There has been determined an influence of growing technology on the chemical composition of “Širvinta-1“ and “Zentos” wheat grains: grains of organically cultivated cultivars have 0.6% and 2.0% more starch if to compare to conventionally grown ones. Wheat germination had a positive influence on enzymes (α- and β- amylases, cellulase, xylanase, protease and maltase) activity in grain, with the exception of catalase, the activity of which decreased by ~20% during germination. Activity of α- and β-amylase has increased by about 8% after germination duration from 24 to 36 hours, and there has been evaluated an increase of about 20% after germination duration from 36 to 48 hours as compared to non-germinated grain. There has been estimated statistically reliable higher activity of catalase and protease in wheat grain cultivar “Zentos” applying both growing technologies in comparison to cultivar “Širvinta-1”.
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