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A Step Forward Towards Exploring Nutritional and Biological Potential of Mushrooms: A Case Study of Calocybe gambosa (Fr.) Donk Wild Growing in Serbia
Jovana Dragan Petrovic 1  
,   Ângela Fernandes 2  
,   Dejan Stojković 1  
,   Marina Soković 1  
,   Lillian Barros 2  
,   Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira 2  
,   Aditya Shekhar 3  
,   Jasmina Glamočlija 1  
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Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research Sinisa Stankovic, University of Belgrade, National Institute of Republic of Serbia, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
Centro de Investigação de Montanha (CIMO), Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Campus de Santa Apolónia, 5300-253, Bragança, Portugal
Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Inhoffenstraße 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
Jovana Dragan Petrovic   

Plant Physiology, Institute for Biological Research Sinisa Stankovic, University of Belgrade, National Institute of Republic of Serbia, Bulevar despota Stefana 142, 11060, Belgrade, Serbia
Submission date: 2021-09-27
Final revision date: 2021-12-08
Acceptance date: 2021-12-13
Edible mushrooms have been appreciated globally for their organoleptic, nutritional and chemical properties. In the present study, fruiting body of Calocybe gambosa, wild growing in Serbia, has been chemically characterized (content of macronutrients, soluble sugars, tocopherols, fatty and organic acids) and its bioactive (antimicrobial and antioxidant) properties were evaluated. The results obtained suggest that this mushroom is a source of carbohydrates and proteins (72 g/100 g dry weight (dw) and 16 g/100 g dw, respectively), with a low fat content (1.5 g/100 g dw). Sugar analysis revealed the presence of trehalose (3.82 g/100 g dw) and mannitol (0.22 g/100 g dw). Tocopherol composition revealed the presence of α-tocopherol (7.8 μg/100 g dw), while fatty acid analysis revealed the presence of 24 fatty acids with the prevalence of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Amongst organic acids, oxalic, quinic, malic, citric and fumaric acid were detected (2.8 g/100 g dw, 1.45 g/100 g dw, 11.3 g/100 g dw, 1.3 g/100 g dw, 0.08 g/100 g dw, respectively). Comprehensive antioxidant activity analysis (reducing power, DPPH radical scavenging activity, β-carotene/linoleate and TBARS assays) indicate that the mushroom is a perspective antioxidant source, whereas its antimicrobial potential turned out to be moderate. Nevertheless, at a sub-inhibitory level, the methanolic extract disrupted cell-to-cell communication using Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as a model system. Finally, enrichment of oatmeal cookies with C. gambosa flakes not only improved their nutritional value, but was praised among the participants in sensory evaluation test, indicating that along with results of chemical composition and biological activity, this mushroom has a potential to be regarded as functional food.
This research was funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia, grant number 451-03-9/2021-14/ 200007. The authors acknowledge the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT, Portugal) for financial support by national funds FCT/MCTES to CIMO (UIDB/00690/2020).
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