Approaches for Improvement in Digestive Survival of Probiotics, a Comparative Study
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University of Lincoln, National Centre for Food Manufacturing, Park Road, PE12 7 PT, Holbeach, UK
Jan Długosz University in Częstochowa, Faculty of Science and Technology, 13/15 Aleja Armii Krajowej, 42-200, Częstochowa, Poland
Polytech Montpellier, University of Montpellier, Place Eugène Bataillon, CC419, 34095 Montpellier, France
University of Lincoln, Lincoln Institute for Agri-food Technology, Brayford Pool, LN6 7TS, Lincoln, UK
University of Lincoln, School of Engineering, Brayford Pool, LN6 7TS, Lincoln, UK
Nick Tucker   

School of Engineering, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, LN^ 7TS, Lincoln, United Kingdom
Online publication date: 2020-06-19
Publication date: 2020-06-19
Submission date: 2020-01-06
Final revision date: 2020-04-03
Acceptance date: 2020-04-07
The aim of this study was to compare approaches commonly recommended in the literature for the improvement of the survival of probiotics in the human digestive tract. The survival of two probiotics, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium lactis, in the presence or absence of prebiotics, maize starch, fermented milk and upon encapsulation in calcium alginate-chitosan was evaluated. While B. lactis was resistant to stomach juice, but sensitive to duodenal juice, L. casei showed an exactly opposite behaviour. In contrast to other published studies, here the overall digestive survivability of probiotics was not improved significantly by prebiotics, maize starch or encapsulation. However, a significant improvement of the overall survivability of B. lactis (but not L. casei) during in vitro digestion was noted in milk and fermented milk, possibly due to reduction of the activity of bile against this probiotic. Summarising, no one method could be universally recommended for the improvement of probiotic survivability. Nevertheless, this research indicated that certain probiotic characteristics, such as susceptibility to bile or acid or ability to utilise matrix components as an energy source, could be used in further research to select the most effective approaches to deliver viable cells into lower parts of the digestive tract.
We thank Winclove Probiotics and especially Dr Saskia van Hemert for providing us study materials and professional advice on this work. We are also appreciative of help received from Ruth Britton and Sophie Bowers during training and work on the laboratory trials. Finally, we would like to thank the Jan Dlugosz University in Czestochowa for covering article publication charges.
We would like to acknowledge the National Centre for Food Manufacturing and the Undergraduate Research Opportunities Scheme funding awarded by the University of Lincoln for financial support for this project.
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