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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Drying Kinetics, Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Quality of the Instant Foxtail Millet as Affected by Drying Methods
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College of Agriculture and Forestry, Longdong University, 745000, Qingyang, China
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Yingqiang Wang   

College ofAgriculture and Forestry, Longdong university, China
Submission date: 2021-11-26
Final revision date: 2022-01-22
Acceptance date: 2022-01-27
Online publication date: 2022-02-18
Publication date: 2022-02-18
 
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2022;72(1):69–78
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
The instant foxtail millet was prepared using microwave vacuum drying (MVD), microwave-hot air drying (MHAD), hot air drying (HAD) and traditional roasting (TR). Their effects on drying kinetics, physicochemical properties as well as sensory quality were evaluated and compared. Results showed that the total drying time varied with the drying method used and was about 160, 100, 260, and 45 min for MVD, MHAD, HAD and TR, respectively. The effective moisture diffusion coefficients (Deff) were 6.57×10-9 m2/s, 9.80×10-9 m2/s, 4.14×10-9 m2/s and 6.20×10-9 m2/s for MVD, MHAD, HAD and TR, respectively. Drying resulted in a significant decrease in L* and an increase in a* and b* of the color of products. MVD, MHAD and HAD products had a comparable rehydration ratio and cooking time. Scanning electron microscopy and rehydration process revealed that MHAD and MVD samples had a similar structure with the HAD sample. Drying caused a loss of 6.5–54.9% in the total phenolic content and a loss of 38.4–62.2% in total yellow pigment content. MVD millet displayed the highest total phenolic content (142.56 mg GAE/100 g dry matter) and yellow pigment content (9.56 mg CE/kg dry matter). In sensory evaluation, MHAD, HAD and MVD samples had comparable scores and were all accepted by the panelists, either in dry or rehydrated form. MHAD and MVD can be used as an alternative to hot air drying or traditional roasting in the production of the instant millet due to shorter drying time and better product quality.
FUNDING
The authors gratefully acknowledged the financial supports provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.31460398 and No.32060544) and the Scientific Research Starting Foundation for Doctor (No.2014XYBY1) and Youth Science and Technology Innovation Project (No. XYZK1707) of Longdong University.
 
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