Effect of Lecithin and Mono- and Di-Glyceride on Quality and Shelf Life of Hazelnut Butter: Chemometric Approach
More details
Hide details
Food Science and Technology, University of Guilan, Iran
Food Science, Islamic Azad University of Rasht Branch, Iran
Amir Pourfarzad   

Food Science and Technology, University of Guilan, Iran
Submission date: 2020-06-19
Final revision date: 2020-10-29
Acceptance date: 2020-11-02
Nut butter can be recognized as a functional food substitute for the animal butter. This study aimed to investigate the effects of mono- and diglycerides and lecithin on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of hazelnut butter. For this purpose, mono- and di-glycerides, and lecithin were employed in the hazelnut butter formulation at 0, 1, and 2 g/100 g addition levels. The proximate composition, acidity, peroxide value, and texture parameters were evaluated. Although adding mono- and di-glycerides and lecithin to the hazelnut butter formulation did not significantly change the adhesiveness, it increased their hardness. The sensory analysis revealed that lecithin and mono- and di-glycerides did not significantly affect the color, taste, and flavor of the butters. The highest texture, spreadability, and overall acceptance scores were observed when lecithin was used at the level of 2 g/100 g. The lowest acidity had butter containing mono- and di-glycerides at the level of 1 g/100 g. The peroxide values showed no significant changes during the 90-day storage. The principal component analysis (PCA) allowed discriminating among the features. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were applied to find the relationship between sensory and instrumental data. Thus, chemometric approach appears to be a promising technique for the analysis of hazelnut butter.
The Department of Food Science and Technology at University of Guilan is warmly acknowledged for providing necessary research facilities.
Partial support for this research was provided by the Guilan Science and Technology Park under creativity project number 97/7145.
Akcicek, E., Otles, S., Esiyok, D. (2005). Cancer and its prevention by some horticultural and field crops in Turkey. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 6, 224-230.
AOAC. (2005). Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. In: Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
Ardakani, A.S., Shahedi, M., Kabir, G. (2009). Optimizing formulation of pistachio butter production. Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 13(47 (A)), 49-60.
Ascari, L., Siniscalco, C., Palestini, G., Lisperguer, M.J., Huerta, E.S., De Gregorio, T., Bregaglio, S. (2020). Relationships between yield and pollen concentrations in Chilean hazelnut orchards. European Journal of Agronomy, 115, art. no. 126036.
Capurso, A., Crepaldi, G., Capurso, C. (2018). Nuts. In: 5. Capurso, A., Crepaldi, G., Capurso, C. (Eds.) Benefits of the Mediterranean Diet in the Elderly Patient, Springer, pp. 263-284.
Deng, Y., Peng, C., Dai, M., Lin, D., Ali, I., Alhewairini, S.S., Zheng, X., Chen, G., Li, J., Naz, I. (2020). Recent development of super-wettable materials and their applications in oil-water separation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 266, art.no. 121624.
Dobhal, K., Singh, N., Semwal, A., Negi, A. (2018). A brief review on hazelnuts. Internationl Journal of Recent Scientific Research, 9(1), 23680-23684.
Ereifej, K., Rababah, T., Al-Rababah, M. (2005). Quality attributes of halva by utilization of proteins, non-hydrogenated palm oil, emulsifiers, gum arabic, sucrose, and calcium chloride. International Journal of Food Properties, 8(3), 415-422.
Eudier, H., Ben-Harb, S., Lorand, J.-P., Duthil, F., Negahban, M., Saiter, J.-M., Chan-Huot, M. (2020). Properties of an analogue cheese obtained from raw peanut. Peanut Science, 47(2), 81-88.
FAOSTAT. (2020). FAO Statistics, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. In: Rome, Italy.
Garcia, J., Agar, I., Streif, J. (1994). Lipid characteristics of kernels from different hazelnut varieties. Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Forestry, 18, 199-202.
Gills, L.A., Resurreccion, A.V.A. (2000a). Overall acceptability and sensory profiles of unstabilized peanut butter and peanut butter stabilized with palm oil. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 24(6), 495-516.
Gills, L., Resurreccion, A. (2000b). Sensory and physical properties of peanut butter treated with palm oil and hydrogenated vegetable oil to prevent oil separation. Journal of Food Science, 65(1), 173-180.
Godoy, J.L., Vega, J.R., Marchetti, J.L. (2014). Relationships between PCA and PLS-regression. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 130, 182-191.
Haghani Haghighi, H., Azar, M., Mazloumi, M.T., Komeyli Fonoud, R. (2008). Survey of formulation, production and sensory evaluation of pistachio butter. Iranian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 5(3), 19-26 (in Persian).
Hejri-Zarifi, S., Ahmadian-Kouchaksaraei, Z., Pourfarzad, A., Khodaparast, M.H.H. (2013). Dough performance, quality and shelf life of flat bread supplemented with fractions of germinated date seed. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(12), 3776-3784.
Huynh, N.N., Chin‐Dusting, J. (2006). Amino acids, arginase and nitric oxide in vascular health. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 33(1‐2), 1-8.
Izidoro, D.R., Scheer, A.de P., Sierakowsk, M.-R. (2009). Rheological properties of emulsions stabilized by green banana (Musa cavendishii) pulp fitted by power law model. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 52(6), 1541-1553.
Martens, H., Martens, M. (2001). Analysis of two data tables X and Y: Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). In Multivariate Analysis of Quality: An Introduction. Wiley & Sons Ltd., London, UK, pp. 111-125.
Mirtajeddini, S.B., Azadmard-Damirchi, S., Peighambardoust, S.H., Rasouli-Pirouzian, H. (2016). Application of ester mono-diglycerid citric acid (Citrem) in replacement of lecithin, on some qualitative characteristics of milk chocolate. Journal of Food Research, 26(2), 265-276 (in Persian).
Pellegrino, R., Cheon, B.K., Forde, C.G., Oleszkiewicz, A., Pieniak, M., Luckett, C.R. (2020). The contribution of texture contrasts and combinations to food acceptance across cultures. Journal of Texture Studies, 51(2), 225-231.
Pourfarzad, A., Ahmadian, Z., Tavassoli-Kafrani, M.H. (2019). The effect of sodium stearoyl lactylate on structural changes of wheat gluten in a model system fortified with inulin: Investigation with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Bioactive Carbohydrates and Dietary Fibre, 17, art no. 100175.
Pourfarzad, A., Gheibi, S., Ahmadian, Z. (2016). Evaluation of sensory characteristics and modeling of the kinetics of hazelnut color indices during infrared roasting. Innovative Food Technologies, 4(2), 81-99.
Pourfarzad, A., Gheibi, S., Ahmadian, Z. (2018). Effect of different roasting methods, blanching and pasteurization conditions on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of hazelnut milk. Innovative Food Technologies, 5(2), 301-318.
Pourfarzad, A., Habibi-Najafi, M.B. (2012). Optimization of a liquid improver for barbari bread: staling kinetics and relationship of texture with dough rheology and image characteristics. Journal of Texture Studies, 43(6), 484-493.
Pourfarzad, A., Haddad Khodaparast, M., Karimi, M., Mortazavi, S. (2014). Optimization of a novel improver gel formulation for Barbari flat bread using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(10), 2344-2356.
Pourfarzad, A., Mehrpour, G.R. (2017). Health benefits of hazelnut. EC Nutrition, 8, 101-105.
Pourfarzad, A., Mohebbi, M., Mazaheri-Tehrani, M. (2012). Interrelationship between image, dough and Barbari bread characteristics; use of image analysis to predict rheology, quality and shelf life. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 47(7), 1354-1360.
Qaziyani, S.D., Pourfarzad, A., Gheibi, S., Nasiraie, L.R. (2019). Effect of encapsulation and wall material on the probiotic survival and physicochemical properties of synbiotic chewing gum: study with univariate and multivariate analyses. Heliyon, 5(7), art. no. e02144.
Ros, E. (2010). Health benefits of nut consumption. Nutrients, 2(7), 652-682.
Sabanis, D., Soukoulis, C., Tzia, C. (2009). Effect of raisin juice addition on bread produced from different wheat cultivars. Food Science and Technology International, 15(4), 325-336.
Said, A., Nasir, N.A. M., Bakar, C.A.A., Mohamad, W.A.F.W. (2019). Chocolate spread emulsion: Effects of varying oil types on physico-chemical properties, sensory qualities and storage stability. Journal of Agrobiotechnology, 10(2), 32-42.
Saker Ardakani, A. (2007). Study on the possibility of utilization sunflower and sesame pastes in the formulation of pistachio butter. Iranian Food Science and Technology Research Journal, 3(1), 1-6.
San Martín, E., Avenoza, A., Peregrina, J.M., Busto, J.H. (2020). Solvent‐based strategy improves the direct determination of key parameters in edible fats and oils by 1H NMR. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 100(4), 1726-1734.
Stuetz, W., Schlörmann, W., Glei, M. (2017). B-vitamins, carotenoids and α-/γ-tocopherol in raw and roasted nuts. Food Chemistry, 221, 222-227.
Taş, N.G., Gökmen, V. (2015). Profiling triacylglycerols, fatty acids and tocopherols in hazelnut varieties grown in Turkey. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 44, 115-121.
Taş, N.G., Gökmen, V. (2018). Profiling of the contents of amino acids, water-soluble vitamins, minerals, sugars and organic acids in Turkish hazelnut varieties. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 68(3), 223-234.
Tipping, M.E., Bishop, C.M. (1999). Probabilistic principal component analysis. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology), 61(3), 611-622.
Totlani, V., Chinnan, M. (2007). Effect of stabilizer levels and storage conditions on texture and viscosity of peanut butter. Peanut Science, 34(1), 1-9.
Turan, G.Y.M., Akccedil, F. (2011). The importance of Turkish hazelnut trace and heavy metal contents for human nutrition. Journal of Soil Science and Environmental Management, 2(1), 25-33.
USDA. (2015). National nutrient database for standard reference, release 28. United States Department of Agriculture Beltsville.
Villarroel, M., Biolly, E., San Martin, S., Estrada, G. (1993). Chilean hazelnut butter, a new alternative for consumers. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 44(2), 131-136.