Search for Author, Title, Keyword
Hydration Kinetics of Nixtamalized White Bitter Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) Seeds
More details
Hide details
Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, School of Agriculture, The University of Jordan, 11942 Amman, Jordan
Mohammed Saleh   

Department of Nutrition and Food Technology, School of Agriculture, The University of Jordan, 11942 Amman, Jordan
Submission date: 2022-05-15
Acceptance date: 2022-10-12
Online publication date: 2022-11-14
Publication date: 2022-11-14
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2022;72(4):361–370
The study was approved by the Ethical Committee, the University of Jordan. Project approval number 9180366/2020/2022. No human or animal trails were used in this study.
Nixtamalization is usually performed on grains by cooking in an alkaline solution to improve the final product characteristics. White bitter lupin (Lupinus albus) seeds were nixtamalized at various concentration of calcium hydroxide in the range of 0.16–3.33% at 50, 70, and 90°C for 35 min and steeped for 0, 8, 16, and 24 h, and the moisture uptake was determined to model seed hydration kinetics. Moisture uptake increased with increasing nixtamalization temperature regardless of calcium hydroxide concentration. The Page and Weibull models adequately described white bitter lupin hydration kinetics during nixtamalization. Model parameters Kp (Page model) and α (Weibull model) ranged from 80.2 to 410.03 and from 88.21 and 93.96, respectively, for nixtamalization at different calcium hydroxide concentrations, and from 58.55 to 662.88 and from 68.74 and 132.99, respectively, for nixtamalization at different temperatures. The alkaloid content of raw lupin flour was 1.08 g/100 g and it gradually decreased as a result of nixtamalization in increasingly concentrated calcium hydroxide solutions and higher temperatures. The cracks were visible in the microstructure of nixtamalized seed coats. Their number and size increased with the increase of processing temperature, calcium hydroxide concentration, and steeping duration. Overall, the presented results may be useful in optimizing the industrial nixtamalization of lupin seeds and increasing the possibility of their use as a valuable food ingredient
The study received no external funding.
The authors declare that they do not have any conflict of interests.
Annicchiarico, P., Harzic, N., Carroni, A.M. (2010). Adaptation, diversity, and exploitation of global white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) landrace genetic resources. Field Crops Research, 119(1), 114–124.
Augusto, P.E.D., Miano, A.C. (2017). Describing the sigmoidal behavior of roasted white lupin (Lupinus albus) during hydration. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 40(3), art. no. e12428.
Borek, S., Kubala, S., Kubala, S., Ratajczak, L. (2011). Comparative study of storage compound breakdown in germinating seeds of three lupine species. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 33, 1953–1968.
Castro-Muñoz, R., Yáñez-Fernández, J. (2015). Valorization of nixtamalization wastewaters (Nejayote) by integrated membrane process. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 95, 7–18.
Chiofalo, B., Presti, V.L., Chiofalo, V., Gresta, F. (2012). The productive traits, fatty acid profile and nutritional indices of three lupin (Lupinus spp.) species cultivated in a Mediterranean environment for the livestock. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 171(2–4), 230–239.
De Cortes Sánchez, M., Altares, P., Pedrosa, M.M., Burbano, C., Cuadrado, C., Goyoaga, C., Muzquiz, M., Jiménez-Martı́nez, C., Dávila-Ortiz, G. (2005). Alkaloid variation during germination in different lupin species. Food Chemistry, 90(3), 347–355.
Díaz González, D., Morawicki, R., Mauromoustakos, A. (2019). Effect of nixtamalization treatment of three varieties of grain sorghum on the reduction of total phenolics and their subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 43(9), art. no. e14067.
Erbas, M. (2010). The effects of different debittering methods on the production of lupin bean snack from bitter Lupinus albus L. seeds. Journal of Food Quality, 33(6), 742–757.
Estivi, L., Buratti, S., Fusi, D., Benedetti, S., Rodríguez, G., Brandolini, A., Hidalgo, A. (2022). Alkaloid content and taste profile assessed by electronic tongue of Lupinus albus seeds debittered by different methods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 114, art. no. 104810.
Farhad, A., Mohammadi, Z. (2005). Calcium hydroxide: a review. International Dental Journal, 55(5), 293–301.
Gaytán-Martínez, M., Cabrera-Ramírez, Á.H., Morales-Sánchez, E., Ramírez-Jiménez, A.K., Cruz-Ramírez, J., Campos-Vega, R., Velazquez, G., Loarca-Piña, G., Mendoza, S. (2017). Effect of nixtamalization process on the content and composition of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of two sorghums varieties. Journal of Cereal Science, 77, 1–8.
Gulisano, A., Alves, S., Rodriguez, D., Murillo, A., van Dinter, B.J., Torres, A.F., Gordillo-Romero, M., de Lourdes Torres, M., Neves-Martins, J., Paulo M.J., Trindade, L.M. (2022). Diversity and agronomic performance of Lupinus mutabilis germplasm in European and Andean environments. Frontiers in Plant Science, 13, art. no. 903661.
Jiménez-Martínez, C., Hernández-Sánchez, H., Alvárez-Manilla, G., Robledo-Quintos, N., Martínez-Herrera, J., Dávila-Ortiz, G. (2001). Effect of aqueous and alkaline thermal treatments on chemical composition and oligosaccharide, alkaloid and tannin contents of Lupinus campestris seeds. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81(4), 421–428.<421::AID-JSFA829>3.0.CO;2-U.
Keller, J., Marmit, S.P., Bunzel, M. (2022). Structural characterization of dietary fiber from different lupin species (Lupinus sp.), Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 70(27), 8430–8440.
Kurlovich, B.S., Kartuzova, L.T., Heinänen, J., Benken, I.I., Chmeleva, Z.V., Bernatskaya, M.L. (2002). Biochemical composition. Chapter 9. In B.S. Kurlovich (Ed.), Lupins (Geography, Classification, Genetic Resources and Breeding), OY International Express, St. Petersburg, Russia, pp. 241–268.
Lucas, M.M., Stoddard, F.L., Annicchiarico, P., Frías, J., Martínez-Villaluenga, C., Sussmann, D., Duranti, M., Seger, A., Zander, P.M., Pueyo, J.J. (2015). The future of lupin as a protein crop in Europe. Frontiers in Plant Science, 6, art. no. 705.
Malekipoor, R., Johnson, S.K., Bhattarai, R.R. (2022). Lupin kernel fibre: nutritional composition, processing methods, physicochemical properties, consumer acceptability and health effects of its enriched products. Nutrients, 14(14), art. no. 2845.
Martínez-Bustos, F., Martínez-Flores, H.E., Sanmartín-Martinez, E., Sánchez-Sinencio, F., Chang, Y.K., Barrera-Arellano, D., Rios, E. (2001). Effect of the components of maize on the quality of masa and tortillas during the traditional nixtamalisation process. Journal of Science of Food and Agriculture, 81(15), 1455–1462.
Martínez-Villaluenga, C., Frías, J., Vidal-Valverde, C. (2006). Functional lupin seeds (Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus luteus L.) after extraction of α-galactosides. Food Chemistry, 98(2), 291–299.
Miano, A.C., Augusto, P.E.D. (2017). The hydration of grains: A critical review from description of phenomena to process improvements. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 17(2), 352–370.
Miano, A.C., García, J.A., Augusto, P.E.D. (2015). Correlation between morphology, hydration kinetics and mathematical models on Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) grains. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 61(2), 290–298.
Oliveira, A.L., Colnaghi, B.G., Silva, E.Z.D., Gouvêa, I.R., Vieira, R.L., Augusto, P.E.D. (2013). Modelling the effect of temperature on the hydration kinetic of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis). Journal of Food Engineering, 118(4), 417–420.
Pastor-Cavada, E., Juan, R., Pastor, J.E., Alaiz, M., Vioque, J. (2009). Analytical nutritional characteristics of seed proteins in six wild Lupinus species from Southern Spain. Food Chemistry, 117(3), 466–469.
Prusinski, J. (2017). White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) – nutritional and health values in human nutrition – a review. Czech Journal of Food Science, 35(2), 95–105.
Ramírez-Araujo, H., Gaytán-Martínez, M., Reyes-Vega, M.L. (2019). Alternative technologies to the traditional nixtamalization process: Review. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 85, 34–43.
Rincón-Aguirre, A., Figueroa-Cárdenas, J.D.D., Ramírez-Wong, B., Arámbula-Villa, G., Jiménez-Sandoval, S.J., Martinez-Flores, H.E., Pérez-Robles, J.F. (2021). Effect of nixtamalization with Ca(OH)2, CaCl2, and CaCO3 on the protein secondary structure, rheological, and textural properties of soft wheat flour doughs. Journal of Cereal Science, 101, art. no. 103271.
Roberts, M.F., Wink, M. (1998). Alkaloids: Biochemistry, Ecology and Medicinal Applications. Plenum Press, New York, USA.
Saleh, M., Meullenet, J.F. (2013). Broken rice kernels and the kinetics of rice hydration and texture during cooking. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93(7), 1673–1679. DOI 10.1002/jsfa.5948.
Santiago-Ramos, D., Figueroa-Cárdenas, J.D., Véles-Medina, J.J., Salazar, R. (2018a). Physicochemical properties of nixtamalized black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) flours. Food Chemistry, 240, 456–462.
Santiago-Ramos, D., Figueroa-Cárdenas, J.D., Mariscal-Moreno, R.M., Escalante-Aburto, A., Ponce-García, N., Véles-Medina, J.J. (2018b). Physical and chemical changes undergone by pericarp and endosperm during corn nixtamalization-A review. Journal of Cereal Science, 81, 108–117.
Sefa-Dedeh, S., Stanley, D.W. (1979). The relationship of microstructure of cowpeas to water absorption and dehulling properties. Cereal Chemistry, 56(4), 379–386.
Shamsa, F., Monsef, H., Ghamooshi, R., Verdian-rizi, M. (2008). Spectrophotometric determination of total alkaloids in some Iranian medicinal plants. Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 32, 17–20.
Solomon, W.K. (2007). Hydration kinetics of lupin (Lupinus albus) seeds. Journal of Food Process Engineering, 30(1), 119–130.
Solomon, W.K. (2009). Hydration kinetics of roasted lupin (Lupinus albus) seeds. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 33(s1), 214–225.
Sujak, A., Kotlarz, A., Strobel, W. (2006). Compositional and nutritional evaluation of several lupin seeds. Food Chemistry, 98(4), 711–719.
Thakur, A.K., Gupta, A.K. (2006). Water absorption characteristics of paddy, brown rice and husk during soaking. Journal of Food Engineering, 75(2), 252–257.
Ueno, S., Shigematsu, T., Karo, M., Hayashi, M., Fujii, T. (2015). Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on water absorption of adzuki beans. Foods, 4(2), 148–158.
Valdez-Niebla, J.A., Paredes-López, O., Vargas-López, J.M., Hernández-López, D. (1993). Moisture sorption isotherms and other physicochemical properties of nixtamalized amaranth flour, Food Chemistry, 46(1), 19–23.
Vega Rojas, L.J., Rojas Molina, I., Gutiérrez Cortez, E., Rincón Londoño, N., Acosta Osorio, A.A., Del Real López, A., Rodríguez García, M.E. (2017). Physicochemical properties of nixtamalized corn flours with and without germ. Food Chemistry, 220, 490–497.
Voss, K., Ryu, D., Jackson, L., Riley, R., Gelineau-van Waes, J. (2017). Reduction of fumonisin toxicity by extrusion and nixtamalization (alkaline cooking). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 65(33), 7088–7096.