Search for Author, Title, Keyword
Influence of Pretreatments on Microwave Vacuum Drying Kinetics, Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Quality of Apple Slices
More details
Hide details
College of Agriculture and Forestry, Longdong University, China
Submission date: 2019-03-24
Final revision date: 2019-07-01
Acceptance date: 2019-07-16
Online publication date: 2019-07-26
Publication date: 2019-08-22
Corresponding author
Yingqiang Wang   

College of Agriculture and Forestry, Longdong University, China
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2019;69(3):297-306
The objective of this study was to determine and compare the effect of five different pretreatments including sulfite treatment (ST), osmotic dehydration (OD), steam blanching (SB), steam blanching plus osmotic dehydration (SB+OD), and ultrasound treatment (UT), on the microwave vacuum drying (MVD) kinetics, the physicochemical properties, and sensory quality of the apple slices. The results showed that the pretreatments prior to MVD could reduce the drying time of apple slices by 25-45% as compared to the non-pretreated apple slices, and the drying time in the SB+OD apple slices sample was shortest. Whether pretreated or not, MVD process was controlled by diffusion and characterized by a two-stage falling-rate drying. As calculated according to the Fick's law of diffusion, the moisture diffusivities (Deff) ranged from 1.64×10-8 to 3.46×10-8 m2/s. Different pretreatment methods had a significant influence on the physicochemical properties and sensory qualities of the dried products (p<0.05). The SB+OD-pretreated apple slices showed the lowest shrinkage (59.5%) and the highest total sugar content (77.90 g/100 g dry matter). Besides, the OD-pretreated apple slices showed the highest density (0.953 g/cm3) and the lowest titratable acidity (1.67 g/100 g dry matter). In addition, the ST-pretreated samples showed the highest titratable acidity (3.21 g/100 g dry matter) and vitamin C content (12.74 mg/100 g dry matter), while the sample pretreated by SB showed the highest total phenolics content (18.37 mg/g dry matter). Non-sulfite-pretreated samples were superior to the sulfite treatment or the control in flavor but inferior to the sulfite treatment in color. Results of preference sensory evaluation showed that the dried apple slices were preferred by the panelists in the following order: SB+OD>SB>UT>OD>ST>the control. ntrol.
The authors gratefully acknowledged the financial supports provided by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31460398) and the Scientific Research Starting Foundation for Doctor of Longdong University(No: 2014XYBY11).
AOAC. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 16th ed. Washington, DC.
Beigi, M. (2016). Hot air drying of apple slices: Dehydration characteristics and quality assessment. Heat and Mass Transfer, 52(8),1435-1442.
Bi, J.F., Yang, A.J., Liu, Y.X., Wu, X.Y., Chen,Q.Q.,Wang, Q., Lv, J., Wang, X. (2015). Effects of pretreatments on explosion puffing drying kinetics of apple chips. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 60(2),1136-1142.
Blanda, G., Cerretani, L., Bendini, A., Cardinali, A., Scarpellini, A., Lercker, G. (2008). Effect of vacuum impregnation on the phenolic content of Granny Smith and Stark Delicious frozen apple cvv. European Food Research and Technology, 226(5), 1229-1237.
Camel, L., Jiang, N., Song, J.F., Ling, D.J., Liu, C.Q., Huang, J.P., Wei, Q.Y., Zhang, M. (2019). Effects of pretreatments on properties of microwave vacuum drying of sweet potato slices. Drying Technology, DOI: 10.1080/07373937.2018.1543702.
Chong, C.H., Law, C.L., Figiel, A., Wojdyło, A., Oziembłowski, M. (2013). Colour, phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of some fruits dehydrated by a combination of different methods. Food Chemistry, 141(4), 3889-3896.
Crank, J. (1975). The Mathematics of Diffusion. 2nd ed. London: Oxford University Press.
Dandamrongrak, R., Young, G.., Mason, R. (2002). Evaluation of various pre-treatments for the dehydration of banana and selection of suitable drying models. Journal of Food Engineering, 55(2), 139-146.
de Farias Aires, J.E., da Silva, W.P.,D., de Farias Aires, K.L.C., da Silva Júnior, A.F., da Silva, C.M.D.P. (2018). Convective drying of osmo-dehydrated apple slices: Kinetics and spatial behavior of effective mass diffusivity and moisture content. Heat and Mass Transfer, 54(4), 1121-1134.
Doymaz, İ. (2010). Effect of citric acid and blanching pre-treatments on drying and rehydration of Amasya red apples. Food Bioproducts and Processing, 88(2-3), 124-132.
Faller, A.L.K., Fialho, E. (2010). Polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity in organic and conventional plant foods. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 23(60, 561-568.
GB/T 12456-2008. Determination of total acid in foods. National Standard of the People's Republic of China. Beijing.
GB/T 5009.7-2016. Determination of reducing sugar in foods. China National standard for food safety.Beijing.
GB/T5009.86-2016. Determination of ascorbic acid in food. China National Standard for food safety. Beijing, China.
González-Herrera, S.M., Rutiaga-Quinones, O.M., Aguilar, C.N., Ochoa-Martínez, L.A., Contreras-Esquivel, J.C., Lopez, M.G., Rodríguez-Herrera, R. (2016). Dehydrated apple matrix supplemented with agave fructans, inulin, and oligo fructose. LWT - Food Science Technology, 65, 1059-1065.
Horuz, E., Jaafar, H.J., Maskan, M. (2017). Ultrasonication as pretreatment for drying of tomato slices in a hot air–microwave hybrid oven. Drying Technology, 35(7), 849-859.
Igual, M., Garcia-Martinez, M., Martin-Esparza, M.E., Martinez-Navarette, N. (2012). Effect of processing on the drying kinetics and functional value of dried apricot. Food Research International, 47(2), 284-290.
Kaya, A., Aydin, O., Demirtas, C., Akgün, M. (2007). An experimental study on the drying kinetics of quince. Desalination, 212(1-3), 328-343.
Khandelwal, Sh., Udipi, S.A., Ghugre, P. (2010). Polyphenols and tannins in Indian pulses: effect of soaking, germination and pressure cooking. Food Research International, 43(2), 526-530.
Kowalska, H., Marzec, A., Kowalska, J., Samborska, K., Tywone, M., Lenart, A. (2018). Development of apple chips technology. Heat and Mass Transfer, 54(12), 3573–3586.
Krokida, M.K., Kiranoudis, C.T., Maroulis, Z.B., Marinos-Kouris, D. (2000). Effect of pretreatment on color of dehydrated products. Drying Technology, 18(6), 1239-1250.
Liu, P., Mujumdar, A.S., Zhang, M., Jiang, H. (2015). Comparison of three blanching treatments on the color and anthocyanin level of the microwave-assisted spouted bed drying of purple flesh sweet potato. Drying Technology, 33(1), 66-71.
Loncaric, A., Dugalic K., Mihaljevic, I., Jakobek, L., Pilizota, V. (2014). Effects of sugar addition on total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of frozen and freeze-dried apple purée. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(7), 1674-1682.
Mejia-Meza, E.I., Yáñez, J.A., Remsberg, C.M., Takemoto, J.K., Davies, N.M., Rasco, B., Clary, C. (2010). Effect of dehydration on raspberries: polyphenol and anthocyanin retention, antioxidant capacity, and antiadipogenic activity. Journal of Food Science, 75(1), H5-H12.
Mothibe, K. J., Zhang, M., Mujumdar, A. S., Wang, Y. C., Cheng, X. (2014). Effects of ultrasound and microwave pretreatments of apple before spouted bed drying on rate of dehydration and physical properties. Drying Technology, 32(15),1848-1856.
Nahimana, H., Zhang, M. (2011). Shrinkage and color change during microwave vacuum drying of carrot. Drying Technology, 29(7), 836-847.
Nimmanpipug, N., Therdthai, N., Dhamvithee, P. (2013). Characterization of osmotically dehydrated papaya with further hot air drying and microwave vacuum drying. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 48(6), 1193-1200.
Nowacka, M., Wiktor, A., Sledz, M., Jurek, N., Witrowa-Rajchert, D. (2012). Drying of ultrasound pretreated apple and its selected physical properties. Journal of Food Engineering, 113(3), 427-433.
Ovando-Martinez, M., Sáyago-Ayerdi, S., Agama-Acevedo, E., Goñi, I., Bello-Pérez, L.A. (2009). Unripe banana flour as an ingredient to increase the undigestible carbohydrates of pasta. Food Chemistry, 113(1), 121-126.
Pasławska, M., Stępień, B., Nawirska-Olszańska, A., Maślankowski, R., Rydzak, L. (2017). Effect of vacuum impregnation on drying kinetics and selected quality factors of apple cubes. International Journal of Food Engineering, 13(6), art. no. 20160309.
Rodríguez, O., Llabrés, P.J., Simal, S., Femenia, A., Rosselló, C. (2015). Intensification of predrying treatments by means of ultrasonic assistance: Effects on water mobility, PPO activity, microstructure, and drying kinetics of apple. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 8(3), 503-515.
Schoessler, K., Jaeger, H., Knorr, D. (2012). Effect of continuous and intermittent ultrasound on drying time and effective diffusivity during convective drying of apple and red bell pepper. Journal of Food Engineering, 108(1), 103-110.
Singleton, V.L., Orthofer, R., Ramuela-Raventos, R.M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Oxidants and Antioxidants, Part A, 299(1), 152-178.
Vega-Gálvez, A., Ah-Hen, K., Chacana, M., Vergara, J., Martinez-Monzo, J., Garcia-Segovia, P., Lemus-Mondaca, R., Di Scala, K. (2012). Effect of temperature and air velocity on drying kinetics, antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, colour, texture and microstructure of apple (var. Granny Smith) slices. Food Chemistry, 132(1), 51-59.
Velickova, E., Winkelhausen, E., Kuzmanova, S. (2014). Physical and sensory properties of ready to eat apple chips produced by osmo-convective drying. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51(12), 3691-3701.
Wang, H.O., Fu, Q.Q., Chen, S.J. (2018). Effect of hot-water blanching pretreatment on drying characteristics and product qualities for the novel integrated freeze-drying of apple slices. Journal of Food Quality, 2018(5), 1-12.
Xiao, M., Bi, J.F., Yi, J.Y., Zhao, Y., Peng, J., Zhou, L., Chen, Q. (2018). Osmotic pretreatment for instant controlled pressure drop dried apple chips: Impact of the type of saccharides and treatment conditions. Drying Technology, 37(7), 896-905.
Zhang, M., Tang, J., Mujumdar, A.S., Wang, S. (2006). Trends in microwave related drying of fruits and vegetables. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 17(10), 524-534.
Zhao, Y., Wang, W., Zheng, B., Zheng, B.D., Miao, S., Tian, Y.T. (2017). Mathematical modeling and influence of ultrasonic pretreatment on microwave vacuum drying kinetics of Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn.) seeds. Drying Technology, 35(5), 553-563.
Zielinska, M., Zielinska, D., Markowski, M. (2018). The effect of microwave-vacuum pretreatment on the drying kinetics, color and the content of bioactive compounds in osmo-microwave-vacuum dried cranberries (Vaccinium Macrocarpon). Food Bioprocess and Technology, 11(3), 585-602.
The Effect of Mechanical Actions Occurring during Transport on Physicochemical Changes in Agaricus bisporus Mushrooms
Dorota Walkowiak-Tomczak, Natalia Idaszewska, Krzysztof Bieńczak, Wiktoria Kómoch
Phenolic Compounds from Apples: Reviewing their Occurrence, Absorption, Bioavailability, Processing, and Antioxidant Activity – a Review
Małgorzata Starowicz, Mariusz Piskuła, Bohdan Achrem–Achremowicz, Henryk Zieliński
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
The Effect of Mechanical Vibration during Transport under Model Conditions on the Shelf-Life, Quality and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Four Apple Cultivars
Dorota Walkowiak-Tomczak, Natalia Idaszewska, Grzegorz Łysiak, Krzysztof Bieńczak
Advances in vacuum microwave drying (VMD) systems for food products
Luis González-Cavieres, Mario Pérez-Won, Gipsy Tabilo-Munizaga, Erick Jara-Quijada, Rodrigo Díaz-Álvarez, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca
Trends in Food Science & Technology
Effect of Pretreatments on Convective and Infrared Drying Kinetics, Energy Consumption and Quality of Terebinth
Yousef Abbaspour-Gilandeh, Mohammad Kaveh, Hamideh Fatemi, Esmail Khalife, Dorota Witrowa-Rajchert, Małgorzata Nowacka
Applied Sciences
Drying Kinetics, Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Quality of the Instant Foxtail Millet as Affected by Drying Methods
Yingqiang Wang, Hongxia Zhao, Xi Song, Wenjie Zhang, Feng Yang
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Physico-Chemical and Sensory Quality of Oven-Dried and Dehydrator-Dried Apples of the Starkrimson, Golden Delicious and Florina Cultivars
Cristina Ghinea, Ancuta Prisacaru, Ana Leahu
Applied Sciences
Pulsed Electric Fields as Pretreatment for Different Drying Methods in Chilean Abalone (Concholepas concholepas) Mollusk: Effects on Product Physical Properties and Drying Methods Sustainability
Mario Pérez-Won, Luis González-Cavieres, Anais Palma-Acevedo, Gipsy Tabilo-Munizaga, Erick Jara-Quijada, Roberto Lemus-Mondaca
Food and Bioprocess Technology
Differential model of the kinetics of water vapour adsorption on maize starch particles
Aneta Ocieczek, Robert Kostek, Henryk Toczek
International Agrophysics
Qualitative, energy and environmental aspects of microwave drying of pre-treated apple slices
Ebrahim Taghinezhad, Mohammad Kaveh, Antoni Szumny, Adam Figiel, José Blasco
Scientific Reports
Comparative Study on Drying Characteristics and Quality of Apple Cubes Dried in Two Different Microwave Dryers
Yuhe Ma, Xiaoju Tian, Yingqiang Wang, Hongxia Zhao, Jialing Song
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top