Search for Author, Title, Keyword
Nutritional Properties, Antioxidant and Antihaemolytic Activities of the Dry Fruiting Bodies of Wild Edible Mushrooms Consumed by Ethnic Communities of Northeast India
Merilin Kakoti 1,2  
,   Dibya Jyoti Hazarika 1,3  
,   Assma Parveen 1  
,   Samim Dullah 1  
,   Alokesh Ghosh 1  
,   Dipankar Saha 1  
,   Madhumita Barooah 1  
,   Robin Chandra Boro 1  
More details
Hide details
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat - 785013, Assam, India
Department of Bioengineering and Technology, Gauhati University Institute of Science and Technology, Gauhati University, Guwahati - 781014, Assam, India
DBT-North East Centre for Agricultural Biotechnology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat - 785013, Assam, India
Robin Chandra Boro   

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Assam Agricultural University, India
Submission date: 2021-04-02
Final revision date: 2021-11-15
Acceptance date: 2021-11-17
Online publication date: 2021-12-13
Publication date: 2021-12-13
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2021;71(4):463–480
A variety of cultivated mushrooms in Northeast India are well known for their taste, nutritional and medicinal benefits. Many wild-growing mushrooms are also consumed due to their exotic flavours and tastes; however, the scientific exploration of their nutritional and bioactive properties is still negligible. In the present study, the 32 wild edible mushroom samples of 11 species collected from different parts of Northeast India were evaluated for their proximate composition, mineral and vitamin (ascorbic acid and riboflavin) contents, antioxidant and antihaemolytic activity, and profiles of organic and phenolic acids. Lentinus sajor-caju and Lentinus squarrosulus had the highest carbohydrate content (49.80 g/100 g dry weight (d.w.) and 46.36 g/100 g d.w., respectively), crude protein content (20.72 g/100 g d.w. and 20.54 g/100 g d.w., respectively) and a considerable content of minerals. The highest fat content was determined in Lentinus velutinus (7.17 g/100 g d.w.). Among the minerals, potassium was found as the most abundant in all the samples. The extracts of L. sajor-caju, L. squarrosulus, and Pleurotus pulmonarius were characterized by the highest antioxidant activity, while these of L. sajor-caju, Pleurotus ostreatus, P. pulmonarius and Agaricus bisporus showed the highest antihaemolytic potential. The HPLC analysis allowed determining the high contents of ascorbic acid and a few organic and phenolic acids such as lactic acid, gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and trans-cinnamic acid in the tested mushrooms. Other compounds viz. citric acid, caffeic acid, riboflavin, vanillic acid, pyruvic acid, and p-coumaric acid were detected with variations. This study established the nutritional and health-promoting benefits of wild edible mushrooms of Northeast India region for consumption as functional foods in the human diet.
The authors are grateful to the Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam for providing laboratory space and facilities for conducting the present work. The authors are also thankful to DBT – North East Centre for Agricultural Biotechnology, Assam Agricultural University, Jorhat, Assam for providing necessary facilities and publication support.
This work was funded by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India, vide project sanction no. EEQ/2016/000631 without any influence over experimental design, findings and data interpretation.
Afsar, T., Razak, S., Khan, M.R., Mawash, S., Almajwal, A., Shabir, M., Haq, I.U. (2016). Evaluation of antioxidant, anti-hemolytic and anticancer activity of various solvent extracts of Acacia hydaspica R. Parker aerial parts. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 16(1), art. no. 258.
Akata, I., Zengin, G., Picot, C.M.N., Mahomoodally, M.F. (2019). Enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant properties of six mushroom species from the Agaricaceae family. South African Journal of Botany, 120, 95–99.
Alinezhad, H., Azimi, R., Zare, M., Ebrahimzadeh, M.A., Eslami, S., Nabavi, S.F., Nabavi, S.M. (2013). Antioxidant and antihemolytic activities of ethanolic extract of flowers, leaves, and stems of Hyssopus officinalis L. var. angustifolius. International Journal of Food Properties, 16(5), 1169–1178.
AOAC. (1990). Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists (15th ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists International.
AOAC. (1996). Moisture in animal feed, Method 930.15. In Official Method of Analysis (16th ed.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists International.
AOAC. (2007). Fat by acid hydrolysis. In Official Methods of Analysis (18th Edith). Association of Official Analytical Chemists International.
Barros, L., Dueñas, M., Ferreira, I.C.F.R., Baptista, P., Santos-Buelga, C. (2009). Phenolic acids determination by HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS in sixteen different Portuguese wild mushrooms species. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(6), 1076–1079.
Besbas, S., Mouffouk, S., Haba, H., Marcourt, L., Wolfender, J.-L., Benkhaled, M. (2020). Chemical composition, antioxidant, antihemolytic and anti-inflammatory activities of Ononis mitissima L. Phytochemistry Letters, 37, 63–69.
Blois, M.S. (1958). Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature, 181(4617), 1199–1200.
Boonsong, S., Klaypradit, W., Wilaipun, P. (2016). Antioxidant activities of extracts from five edible mushrooms using different extractants. Agriculture and Natural Resources, 50(2), 89–97.
Chang, R. (1996). Functional properties of edible mushrooms. Nutrition Reviews, 54(11), S91–S93.
Chansiw, N., Paradee, N., Chotinantakul, K., Srichairattanakool, S. (2018). Anti-hemolytic, antibacterial and anti-cancer activities of methanolic extracts from leaves and stems of Polygonum odoratum. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 8(12), 580–585.
Cheung, L.M., Cheung, P.C.K., Ooi, V.E.C. (2003). Antioxidant activity and total phenolics of edible mushroom extracts. Food Chemistry, 81(2), 249–255.
Crisan, E.V., Sands, A. (1978). Nutritional value. In S.T. Chang, W.A. Hayes (Eds.) The Biology and Cultivation of Edible Mushrooms, Chapter 6, Academic Press, pp. 137-168.
Croft, K.D. (1999). Antioxidant effects of plant phenolic compounds. In Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease, CABI Publishing, pp. 109–121. (/Antioxidants_in_Human_Health_and_Disease.pdf#page=129.
Do, T.H., Truong, H.B., Nguyen, H.C. (2020). Optimization of extraction of phenolic compounds from Ocimum basilicum leaves and evaluation of their antioxidant activity. Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal, 54(2), 162–169.
Dursun, N., Özcan, M.M., Kaşık, G., Öztürk, C. (2006). Mineral contents of 34 species of edible mushrooms growing wild in Turkey. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86, 1087–1094.
Elmastas, M., Isildak, O., Turkekul, I., Temur, N. (2007). Determination of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds in wild edible mushrooms. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 20(3–4), 337–345.
Gąsecka, M., Magdziak, Z., Siwulski, M., Mleczek, M. (2018). Profile of phenolic and organic acids, antioxidant properties and ergosterol content in cultivated and wild growing species of Agaricus. European Food Research and Technology, 244(2), 259–268.
Gençcelep, H., Uzun, Y., Tunçtürk, Y., Demirel, K. (2009). Determination of mineral contents of wild-grown edible mushrooms. Food Chemistry, 113(4), 1033–1036.
Ghate, S.D., Sridhar, K.R. (2016). Contribution to the knowledge on macrofungi in mangroves of the southwest India. Plant Biosystems - An International Journal Dealing with All Aspects of Plant Biology, 150(5), 977–986.
Günç Ergönül, P., Akata, I., Kalyoncu, F., Ergönül, B. (2013). Fatty acid compositions of six wild edible mushroom species. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, art. no. 163964.
Hawksworth, D.L. (2001). Mushrooms: The extent of the unexplored potential. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 3(4), art. no. 5.
Ho, L.-H., Zulkifli, N.A., Tan, T.-C. (2020). Edible mushroom: nutritional properties, potential nutraceutical values, and its utilisation in food product development. In A.K. Passari S. Sánchez (Eds.), An Introduction to Mushroom. IntechOpen.
Jeena, G.S., Punatha, H., Prakash, O., Chandra, M., Kushwaha, K.P.S. (2014). Study on in vitro antioxidant potential of some cultivated Pleurotus species (oyster mushroom). Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources (IJNPR) [Formerly Natural Product Radiance (NPR)], 5(1), 56–61.
Johnsy, G., Sargunam, S.D., Dinesh M.G., Kaviyarasan, V. (2011). Nutritive value of edible wild mushrooms collected from the western ghats of Kanyakumari district. Botany Research International, 4(4), 69–74.
Kakoti, M., Hazarika, D.J., Kumar, A., Barooah, M., Modi, M.K., Bhattacharyya, A., Boro, R.C. (2021). Genetic diversity and dna barcoding of wild mushrooms from Northeast India. Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions A: Science, 45(2), 469–479.
Kalač, P. (2013). A review of chemical composition and nutritional value of wild-growing and cultivated mushrooms. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93(2), 209–218.
Khaund, P., Joshi, S.R. (2013). Wild edible macrofungal species consumed by the Khasi tribe of Meghalaya, India. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, 4(2), 197–204.
Lakshmi, B., Tilak, J.C., Adhikari, S., Devasagayam, T.P.A., Janardhanan, K.K. (2004). Evaluation of antioxidant activity of selected Indian mushrooms. Pharmaceutical Biology, 42(3), 179–185.
Lindequist, U., Niedermeyer, T.H.J., Jülich, W.-D. (2005). The pharmacological potential of mushrooms. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM, 2(3), 285–299.
Madhanraj, R., Ravikumar, K., Maya, M.R., Ramanaiah, I., Venkatakrishna, K., Remeshkumar, K., Veeramanikandan, V., Eyini, M., Balaji, P. (2019). Evaluation of anti-microbial and anti-haemolytic activity of edible basidiomycetes mushroom fungi. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 9(1), 132–135.
Mallikarjuna, S.E., Ranjini, A., Haware, D.J., Vijayalakshmi, M.R., Shashirekha, M.N., Rajarathnam, S. (2013). Mineral composition of four edible mushrooms. Journal of Chemistry, 2013, art. no. 805284.
Manzi, P., Aguzzi, A., Pizzoferrato, L. (2001). Nutritional value of mushrooms widely consumed in Italy. Food Chemistry, 73(3), 321–325.
Martins, A. (2017). The numbers behind mushroom biodiversity. In I.C.F.. Ferreira, P. Morales, L. Barros (Eds.), Wild Plants, Mushrooms and Nuts: Functional Food Properties and Applications, John Wiley Sons Ltd., pp. 15–50.
Nowacka, N., Nowak, R., Drozd, M., Olech, M., Los, R., Malm, A. (2014). Analysis of phenolic constituents, antiradical and antimicrobial activity of edible mushrooms growing wild in Poland. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 59(2), 689–694.
Nwanze, P.I., Khan, A.U., Ameh, J.B., Umoh, V.J. (2005). The effect of the interaction of various pond grains with different culture medium on carpophore dry weights and stipe and pilus diameters of Lentinus squarrosulus (Mont.) Singer. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(7), 615–619.
Parveen, A., Khataniar, L., Goswami, G., Hazarika, D.J., Das, P., Gautom, T., Barooah, M., Boro, R.C. (2017). A Study on the diversity and habitat specificity of macrofungi of Assam, India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6(12), 275–297.
Phan, C., Wong, W., David, P., Naidu, M., Sabaratnam, V. (2012). Pleurotus giganteus (Berk.) Karunarathna K.D. Hyde: Nutritional value and in vitro neurite outgrowth activity in rat pheochromocytoma cells. BMC Complementary Alternative Medicine, 2012, art. no. 102.
Reis, F., Barros, L., Martins, A., Ferreira, I. (2012). Chemical composition and nutritional value of the most widely appreciated cultivated mushrooms: an inter-species comparative study. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50(2), 191–197.
Ribeiro, A., Ruphuy, G., Lopes, J.C., Dias, M.M., Barros, L., Barreiro, F., Ferreira, I.C.F.R. (2015). Spray-drying microencapsulation of synergistic antioxidant mushroom extracts and their use as functional food ingredients. Food Chemistry, 188, 612–618.
Sadasivam, S., Manickam, A. (1996). Biochemical Methods. New Age International.
Sánchez, C. (2017). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant properties from mushrooms. Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology, 2(1), 13–22.
Sarma, T.C., Sarma, I., Patiri, B.N. (2010). Edible mushroom used by some ethnic tribes of western Assam. The Bioscan, 3(Special issue), 613–625.
Schellmann, B., Hilz, M.-J., Opitz, O. (1980). Cadmium- und Kupferausscheidung nach Aufnahme von Champignon-Mahlzeiten (Fecal excretion of cadmium and copper after mushroom (Agaricus) diet). Zeitschrift Fur Lebensmittel-Untersuchung Und -Forschung, 171(3), 189–192 (in German; English abstract).
Shabbir, M., Khan, M.R., Saeed, N. (2013). Assessment of phytochemicals, antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-hemolytic activity of extract and various fractions of Maytenus royleanus leaves. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 13(1), art. no. 143.
Shao, S., Hernandez, M., Kramer, J. K. G., Rinker, D.L., Tsao, R. (2010). Ergosterol profiles, fatty acid composition, and antioxidant activities of button mushrooms as affected by tissue part and developmental stage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(22), 11616–11625.
Sharif, S., Shahid, M., Mushtaq, M., Akram, S., Rashid, A. (2017). Wild mushrooms: A potential source of nutritional and antioxidant attributes with acceptable toxicity. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science, 22(2), 124–130.
Singdevsachan, S.K., Patra, J.K., Tayung, K., Sarangi, K., Thatoi, H. (2014). Evaluation of nutritional and nutraceutical potentials of three wild edible mushrooms from Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India. Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety, 9(2), 111–120.
Singleton, V.L., Rossi, J.A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 16(3), 144–158.
Smiderle, F.R., Olsen, L.M., Ruthes, A.C., Czelusniak, P.A., Santana-Filho, A.P., Sassaki, G.L., Gorin, P.A.J., Iacomini, M. (2012). Exopolysaccharides, proteins and lipids in Pleurotus pulmonarius submerged culture using different carbon sources. Carbohydrate Polymers, 87(1), 368–376.
Soylak, M., Saraçoğlu, S., Tüzen, M., Mendil, D. (2005). Determination of trace metals in mushroom samples from Kayseri, Turkey. Food Chemistry, 92(4), 649–652.
Taylor, T.N., Krings, M., Taylor, E.L. (2015). Basidiomycota. In T.N. Taylor, M. Krings, E.L. Taylor (Eds.), Fossil Fungi, Academic Press, pp. 173–199.
Turkoglu, A., Duru, E., Mercan, N., Kivrak, I., Gezer, K. (2007). Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill. Food Chemistry, 101, 267–273.
Uzun, Y., Gençcelep, H., Kaya, A., Akçay, M.E. (2017). The mineral contents of some wild edible mushrooms. Journal of Fungus, 8(2), 178–183.
Valentão, P., Lopes, G., Valente, M., Barbosa, P., Andrade, P.B., Silva, B.M., Baptista, P., Seabra, R.M. (2005). Quantitation of nine organic acids in wild mushrooms. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(9), 3626–3630.
Wong, J.Y., Chye, F.Y. (2009). Antioxidant properties of selected tropical wild edible mushrooms. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 22(4), 269–277.
Yahia, E.M., Gutiérrez-Orozco, F., Moreno-Pérez, M.A. (2017). Identification of phenolic compounds by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in seventeen species of wild mushrooms in Central Mexico and determination of their antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds. Food Chemistry, 226, 14–22.