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Study of Interactions Between Individual Phenolics of Aronia with Barley Beta-Glucan
Lidija Jakobek 1  
,   Petra Matić 1  
,   Jozo Ištuk 1  
,   Andrew R. Barron 2  
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Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Franje Kuhača 18, Osijek, Croatia
Department of Statistics and Data Science, Yale University, 24 Hillhouse Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511, USA
Lidija Jakobek   

Department of Applied Chemistry and Ecology, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Faculty of Food Technology, Franje Kuhača 18, 31000, Osijek, Croatia
Submission date: 2020-12-19
Final revision date: 2021-04-12
Acceptance date: 2021-04-23
Online publication date: 2021-05-11
Publication date: 2021-05-11
Beneficial effects of aronia phenolics are determined by their interactions with dietary fibers, such as beta-glucan. The aim of this research was to study interactions between aronia phenolics and beta-glucan by investigating the adsorption process. Phenolic compounds were extracted from aronia, analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and adsorbed onto beta-glucan at pH 1.5. The adsorption data were modeled by using Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich, and Hill isotherms with a novel non-linear regression developed especially for adsorption isotherms. Aronia phenolics adsorbed onto beta-glucan in amounts 31-250 mg/g (individual anthocyanins), 44-123 mg/g (individual flavonols), and 51 mg/g (neochlorogenic acid). The correlation between adsorption capacities and phenolic content was high (r2=0.94), which suggested that the adsorption might be concentration dependent. Modeling with a novel non-linear regression allowed more precise determination of adsorption isotherm parameters. Furthermore, there was a correlation between maximum adsorption capacities predicted by models and measured adsorption capacities (r2 0.76, 0.81, and 0.34 for Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushevich, Hill isotherms, respectively). The suggested bonds involved in interactions are non-covalent bonds (H bonds, Van der Waals forces). Principal component analysis showed that anthocyanins, flavonols, and phenolic acids could differently behave in the adsorption process, which could be due to differences in the chemical structures (ionic nature of anthocyanins, nonionic nature of flavonols and phenolic acids at low pH). In conclusion, aronia phenolics interacted with beta-glucan by adsorbing onto its surface, and the novel modeling developed by our team was helpful in the interpretation of this process. Interactions should be further studied due to their importance for the beneficial effects of aronia.
This work has been fully supported by Croatian Science Foundation under the project HRZZ-IP-2016-06-6777 and project HRZZ-IP-2016-06-6545. The work of J.I. was financed by European social fund, Operational Program 2014-2020, aim 10.II.3.
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