Search for Author, Title, Keyword
Thermal Stability of Betalains in By-Products of the Blanching and Cutting of Beta vulgaris L. var conditiva
More details
Hide details
Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Departamento de Industrias and National Research Council of Argentina (CONICET); Instituto de Tecnología de Alimentos y Procesos Químicos (ITAPROQ). Ciudad Universitaria. Avenida Intendente Guiraldes 2620, (1428) CABA, Argentina
UMYMFOR-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, University of Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires, Argentina
Submission date: 2019-08-30
Final revision date: 2019-12-30
Acceptance date: 2020-01-10
Online publication date: 2020-02-12
Publication date: 2020-02-12
Corresponding author
Lia Noemi Gerschenson   

Industry Department. Natural and Exact Sciences School. Buenos Aires University, Buenos Aires University and CONICET, Avenida Intendente Guiraldes 2620, 1428, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2020;70(1):15-24
The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermal stability (5°C, 25°C, and 45°C) of betalains present in by-products of the blanching and cutting of Beta vulgaris L. var conditiva, to evaluate the possibility of taking advantage of them as a source of natural colorants to be incorporated in food products. The identification of the betalain compounds present in these by-products was also performed. Blanching waters showed pigment degradation at all the temperatures evaluated. The remnant tissues were freeze dried rendering beetroot powders whose pigments only presented thermal degradation at 45°C. Sixteen betalain compounds were identified in powders by chromatography and it was concluded that a thermal treatment at 45ºC during six days affected the chemical stability of some of these compounds, producing a diversity of betalain degradation products. Results obtained allowed concluding that the red beetroot powder would have a better performance as a natural coloring additive than the blanching water at temperatures below 45°C. Probably, the low water activity of the powder and its lignin content ensured an effective protection of the pigments up to this temperature.
This study was financially supported by University of Buenos Aires (UBACyT 20020100100726/2011-2014 and 20020130100550BA/2014-2017), National Agency of Scientific and Technical Research (PICT 2015-2109 and 2013-2088), and CONICET (PIP 11220090100531/2010-2012 and 11220120100507/2013-2015).
Azeredo, H.M. (2009). Betalains: properties, sources, applications, and stability-a review. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 44(12), 2365-2376.
Basanta, M.F., Marin, A., De Leo, S.A., Gerschenson, L.N., Erlejman, A.G., Tomás-Barberán, F.A., Rojas, A.M. (2016). Antioxidant Japanese plum (Prunus salicina) microparticles with potential for food preservation. Journal of Functional Foods, 24, 287-296.
Bengardino, M.B., Fernandez, M.V., Nutter, J., Jagus, R.J., Agüero, M.V. (2019). Recovery of bioactive compounds from beet leaves through simultaneous extraction: Modelling and process optimization. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 118, 227-236.
Cai Y.Z., Corke, H. (2000). Production and properties of spray-dried amaranthus betacyanin pigments. Journal of Food Science, 65(7), 1248-1252.
Cai, Y., Sun, M., Corke, H. (1998). Colorant properties and stability of amaranthus betacyanin pigments. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(11), 4491-4495.
Cejudo-Bastante, M.J., Hurtado, N., Mosquera, N., Heredia, F.J. (2014). Potential use of new Colombian sources of betalains. Color stability of ulluco (Ullucus tuberosus) extracts under different pH and thermal conditions. Food Research International, 64, 465- 471.
Celli, G.B., Brooks, M.S.L. (2017). Impact of extraction and processing conditions on betalains and comparison of properties with anthocyanins-A current review. Food Research International, 100, SI, 501-509.
Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers, P.A., Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry, 28(3), 350-356.
Esatbeyoglu, T., Wagner, A.E., Schini-Kerth, V.B., Gerald Rimbach, G. (2015). Betanin - A food colorant with biological activity. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 59, 36-47.
European Community. (2008). Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on food additives. Official Journal of the European Union, L354, 16-33.
Fernández, M.V., Jagus, R., Agüero, M. (2017). Evaluation and characterization of nutritional, microbiological and sensory properties of beet greens. Acta Scientific Nutritional Health, 1(3), 37- 45.
Filisetti-Cozzi, T.M.C.C., Carpita, N.C. (1991). Measurement of uronic acids without interference from neutral sugars. Analytical Biochemistry, 197(1), 157-162.
Gengatharan, A., Dykes, G.A., Choo, W.S. (2016). Stability of betacyanin from red pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and its potential application as a natural colourant in milk. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 51(2), 427-434.
Herbach, K.M., Stintzing, F.C., Carle, R. (2004). Impact of thermal treatment on color and pigment pattern of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) preparations. Journal of Food Science, 69(6), C491- C498.
Herbach, K.M., Rohe, M., Stintzing, F.C., Carle, R. (2006). Structural and chromatic stability of purple pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus [Weber] Britton & Rose) betacyanins as affected by the juice matrix and selected additives. Food Research International, 39(6), 667-677.
Jideani, A.I.O., Anyasi, T.A., Mchau, G.R.A., Udoro, E.O., Onipe, O.O. (2017). Processing and preservation of fresh-cut fruit and vegetable products. In I. Kahramanoglu (Ed.), Postharvest Handling. IntechOpen Limited, London, UK. Published online. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.69763.
Khan, M.I., Giridhar, P. (2015). Plant betalains: Chemistry and biochemistry. Phytochemistry, 117, 267-295.
Khan, M.I., Giridhar, P. (2014). Enhanced chemical stability, chromatic properties and regeneration of betalains in Rivina humilis L. berry juice. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 58(2), 649-657.
Kujala, T., Vienola, M., Klika, K., Loponen, J., Pihlaja, K. (2002). Betalain and phenolic compositions of four beetroot (Beta vulgaris) cultivars. European Food Research and Technology, 214(6), 505-510.
Kumorkiewicz, A., Wybraniec, S. (2017). Thermal degradation of major gomphrenin pigments in the fruit juice of Basella alba L.(Malabar spinach). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 65(34), 7500-7508.
Latorre, M.E., Narvaiz, P., Rojas, A.M., Gerschenson, L.N. (2010). Effects of gamma irradiation on bio-chemical and physico-chemical parameters of fresh-cut red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) root. Journal of Food Engineering, 98(2), 178-191.
Latorre, M.E., Bonelli, P.R., Rojas, A.M., Gerschenson, L.N. (2012). Microwave inactivation of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase and the effect of radiation on vegetable tissue quality. Journal of Food Engineering, 109(4), 676-684.
Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.L., Randall, R.J. (1951). Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 193(1), 265-275.
Mégard, D. (1993). Stability of red beet pigments for use as food colorant: a review. Foods & Food Ingredients Journal, 158, 130-150.
Mikołajczyk-Bator, K., Czapski, J. (2017). Effect of pH changes on antioxidant capacity and the content of betalain pigments during the heating of a solution of red beet betalains. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 67(2), 123-128.
Minale, L., Piattelli, M., Nicolaus, R.A. (1965). Pigments of centrospermae—IV: On the biogenesis of indicaxanthin and betanin in Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. Phytochemistry, 4(4), 593-597.
Moβhammer, M.R., Stintzing, F.C. Carle, R. (2006). Evaluation of different methods for the production of juice concentrates and fruit powders from cactus pear. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technology, 7(4), 275– 287.
Muggeridge, M., Clay, M. (2001). Quality specifications for herbs and spices. In K.V. Peter (Ed.), Handbook of Herbs and Spices, Volume 1, Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, pp. 13-21.
Nemzer, B., Pietrzkowski, Z., Spórna, A., Stalica, P., Thresher, W., Michałowski, T., Wybraniec, S. (2011). Betalainic and nutritional profiles of pigment-enriched red beet root (Beta vulgaris L.) dried extracts. Food Chemistry, 127(1), 42-53.
Ng, A., Parr, A. J., Ingham, L.M., Rigby, N.M., Waldron, K.W. (1998). Cell wall chemistry of carrots (Daucus carota Cv. Amstrong) during maturation and storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(8), 2933-2939.
O'Shea, N., Arendt, E.K., Gallagher, E. (2012). Dietary fibre and phytochemical characteristics of fruit and vegetable by-products and their recent applications as novel ingredients in food products. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, 16, 1-10.
Pires Goncalvez, L.C., Martorelli Di Genova, B., Dorr, F.A., Pinto, E., Leite Bastos, E. (2013). Effect of dielectric microwave heating on the color and antiradical capacity of betanin. Journal of Food Engineering, 118(1), 49-55.
Polturak, G., Aharoni, A. (2018). “La Vie En Rose”: Biosynthesis, sources, and applications of betalain pigments. Molecular Plant, 11(1), 7-22.
Saenz, C., Cancino, B., Robert, P. (2012). Red betalains from Opuntia spp.: Natural colorants with potential applications in foods. Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, 60(3), 291-299.
Sakuta, M. (2014). Diversity in plant red pigments: anthocyanins and betacyanins. Plant Biotechnology Reports, 8(1), SI, 37-48.
Sawicki, T., Bączek, N., Wiczkowski, W. (2016). Betalain profile, content and antioxidant capacity of red beetroot dependent on the genotype and root part. Journal of Functional Foods, 27, 249-261.
Sepúlveda-Jiménez, G., Rueda-Benítez, P., Porta, H., Rocha-Sosa, M. (2004). Betacyanin synthesis in red beet (Beta vulgaris) leaves induced by wounding and bacterial infiltration is preceded by an oxidative burst. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 64(3), 125-133.
Serris, G.S., Biliaderis, C.G. (2001). Degradation kinetics of beetroot pigment encapsulated in polymeric matrices. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 81(8), 691-700.
Singer, J.W., Von Elbe, J.H. (1980). Degradation rates of vulgaxanthine-I. Journal of Food Science, 45(3), 489-491.
Sokal, R.R., Rohlf, J.B. (2000). Biometry. The Principles and Practice of Statistics in Biological Research. San Francisco: WH Freeman and Company, pp 253-380.
Stintzing, F.C., Carle, R. (2004). Functional properties of anthocyanins and betalains in plants, food, and in human nutrition. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 15(1), 19-38.
Stintzing, F.C., Stintzing, A.S., Carle, R., Frei, B., Wrolstad, R.E. (2002). Color and antioxidant properties of cyanidin-based anthocyanin pigments. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(21), 6172-6181.
Swarna, J., Lokeswari, T.S., Smita, M., Ravindhran, R. (2013). Characterisation and determination of in vitro antioxidant potential of betalains from Talinum triangulare (Jacq.) Willd. Food Chemistry, 141(4), 4382-4390.
Vincken, J.P., Schols, H.A., Oomen, R.J.F.J., McCann, M.C., Ulvskov, P., Voragen, A.G.J., Visser, R.G.F. (2003). If homogalacturonan were a side chain of rhamnogalacturonan I. Implications for cell wall architecture. Plant Physiology, 132(4), 1781-1789.
Wiczkowski, W., Romaszko, E., Szawara-Nowak, D., Piskula, M.K. (2018). The impact of the matrix of red beet products and interindividual variability on betacyanins bioavailability in humans. Food Research International, 108, 530-538.
Wybraniec, S., Mizrahi, Y. (2005). Generation of decarboxylated and dehydrogenated betacyanins in thermally treated purified fruit extract from purple pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) monitored by LC-MS/MS. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53(17), 6704-6712.
Wybraniec, S. (2007). A method for identification of diastereomers of 2-decarboxy-betacyanins and 2, 17-bidecarboxy-betacyanins in reversed-phase HPLC. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 389(5), 1611-1621.
You, Y.L., Li, N., Han, X., Guo, J.L., Zhao, Y., Huang, W.D., Zhang, J.C. (2019). The effect of six phenolics acids and tannic acid on colour stability and the anthocyanin content of mulberry juice during refrigerated storage. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 54(6), SI, 2141-2150.
Thematic Issue on “Red Beetroot as a Source of Nutrients, Bioactive Compounds and Pigments”
Wiesław Wiczkowski
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Red Beetroot Betalains: Perspectives on Extraction, Processing, and Potential Health Benefits
Yu Fu, Jia Shi, Si-Yi Xie, Ting-Yi Zhang, Olugbenga Soladoye, Rotimi Aluko
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Effect of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var conditiva) fiber filler and corona treatment on cassava starch films properties
Gonzàlez Otàlora, Silvia Flores, María Basanta, Lía Gerschenson
Food Packaging and Shelf Life
Development of functional pectin edible films with fillers obtained from red cabbage and beetroot
González Otálora, Maria De’Nobili, Ana Rojas, María Basanta, Lía Gerschenson
International Journal of Food Science & Technology
Potential of Beetroot and Blackcurrant Compounds to Improve Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors
Cameron Haswell, Ajmol Ali, Rachel Page, Roger Hurst, Kay Rutherfurd-Markwick
Emerging technology approach for extractability and stability of betalains from the peel of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.)
Moh Zin, Szilvia Bánvölgyi
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery
Comprehensive Betalain Profiling of Djulis (Chenopodium formosanum) Cultivars Using HPLC-Q-Orbitrap High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry
Gui-Ru Xie, Hong-Jhang Chen
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
By-Products Revalorization with Non-Thermal Treatments to Enhance Phytochemical Compounds of Fruit and Vegetables Derived Products: A Review
Marina Cano-Lamadrid, Francisco Artés-Hernández
A Cleaner Delignification of Urban Leaf Waste Biomass for Bioethanol Production, Optimised by Experimental Design
Gustavo Kildegaard, María Balbi, Gabriel Salierno, Miryan Cassanello, Blasio De, Miguel Galvagno
Concentrations of Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) Peel and Flesh Extracts by Reverse Osmosis Membrane
Moh Zin, Areej Alsobh, Arijit Nath, Attila Csighy, Szilvia Bánvölgyi
Applied Sciences
Metabolite Profiling Analysis and the Correlation with Biological Activity of Betalain-Rich Portulaca grandiflora Hook. Extracts
Aneta Spórna-Kucab, Anna Tekieli, Agnieszka Grzegorczyk, Łukasz Świątek, Barbara Rajtar, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak, Karolina Starzak, Boris Nemzer, Zbigniew Pietrzkowski, Sławomir Wybraniec
Natural red dyes from Beta vulgaris L. extract for gamma-rays color indicator: Physico-chemical and biological characterizations
Amel Raouafi, Samira Jbahi, Salma Bessalah, Mahmoud Daoudi, Walid Dridi, Ahmed Hamzaoui, Sergey Dorohzkin, Faouzi Hosni, Mustapha Hidouri
Journal of the Indian Chemical Society
Cassava Starch Films with Anthocyanins and Betalains from Agroindustrial by-Products: Their Use for Intelligent Label Development
González Otálora, Laura Schelegueda, Ruiz-Henestrosa Pizones, Carmen Campos, María Basanta, Lía Gerschenson
Natural Additives in Foods
María Goñi, María Pellegrini, Alejandra Ponce
Antioxidant Capacity, Antitumor Activity and Metabolomic Profile of a Beetroot Peel Flour
Pedro Coimbra, Anna Silva-e-Silva, Ananda Antonio, Henrique Pereira, Valdir Veiga-Junior, Israel Felzenszwalb, Carlos Araujo-Lima, Anderson Teodoro
Co-encapsulation of Lactobacillus plantarum and bioactive compounds extracted from red beet stem (Beta vulgaris L.) by spray dryer
Deus de, de Eduardo, da Marques, Simara Somacal, Zepka Queiroz, Lopes Jacob, Bona de, Barcia Teixeira, Sanchez Lozano, de Ragagnin
Food Research International
Encapsulation of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Beetroot Extract with Alginate and Effect of Capsules on Rheological Properties and Stability of an Oil-in-Water Emulsion Model Food
Villarreal Bautista, Hernández Castillo, Uriarte López, González Barrón
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Betaxanthin Profiling in Beta vulgaris Leaves and Gymnocalycium mihanovichii Grafted Cacti: A Comprehensive Study
Aneta Spórna-Kucab, Anna Tekieli, Magdalena Knapek, Marta Zużałek, Sławomir Wybraniec
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Enhancing the accuracy, speed, and efficiency of kafirin‐PEO electrospun bio‐nanocomposite pH indicators with red beetroot extract using image processing
Fatemeh Tavana, Abdollah Hematian Sourki, Mohammad‐Taghi Golmakani
Food Science & Nutrition
Enhancing betacyanin stability: Comparison of dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) pulp and peel powders through encapsulation technology during storage
Bambang Nurhadi, Muhammad Abdillah Hasan Qonit, Syariful Mubarok, Rudy Adi Saputra
Food Science & Nutrition
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top