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Characterisation of Selected Emulsion Phase Parameters in Milk, Cream and Buttermilk
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Department of Dairy Science and Quality Management, Faculty of Food Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego Str. 7, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Submission date: 2021-05-16
Final revision date: 2021-11-19
Acceptance date: 2021-11-24
Online publication date: 2021-12-13
Publication date: 2021-12-13
Corresponding author
Katarzyna Kiełczewska   

Department of Dairy Science and Quality Management, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 7, 10-719, Olsztyn, Poland
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2022;72(1):5-15
Milk fat undergoes modification during butter production, which can alter its parameters and suitability for processing. The aim of this study was to compare selected milk fat parameters, including the size of milk fat globules, fatty acid profile and thermal properties, based on the thermal history of milk, cream and sweet buttermilk obtained during continuous churning in butter production. The size of milk fat globules was measured by the laser diffraction method; the fatty acid profile of milk fat was determined by gas chromatography; and the thermal properties of freeze-dried samples were determined by differential scanning calorimetry. The analysed products were arranged in the following descending order based on the size of milk fat globules, expressed by the Sauter mean diameter: cream > raw milk > buttermilk. Buttermilk was characterised by the greatest variations in the size of milk fat globules. A microscopic analysis revealed that an increase in fat content intensified the agglomeration of milk fat globules in cream relative to milk. Chains of milk fat globules were observed in buttermilk. Buttermilk was more abundant in monoenoic and polyenoic fatty acids than raw milk and cream. A thermal analysis demonstrated significant (p≤0.05) differences in the parameters of fat crystallisation and melting peaks between raw milk, buttermilk and cream. The thermal history of the samples influenced the results. Cream was characterised by significantly greater changes in the melting and crystallisation enthalpy of milk fat and significantly higher peaks than milk and buttermilk.
The authors would like to thank Justyna Ziajka and Waldemar Brandt for technical assistance during the study.
Project financially supported by the Minister of Education and Science under the program entitled "Regional Initiative of Excellence" for the years 2019-2022, Project No. 010/RID/2018/19, amount of funding 12.000.000 PLN.
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