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Characterization of Triterpene Saponin Composition of White, Yellow and Red Beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.)
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Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska Str. 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
Department of Natural Products Chemistry, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki Str. 1, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology with Laboratory for Microbiological Diagnostics, Medical University of Lublin, Chodźki Str. 1, 20-093 Lublin, Poland
Submission date: 2022-01-31
Final revision date: 2022-04-26
Acceptance date: 2022-04-28
Online publication date: 2022-06-06
Publication date: 2022-06-06
Corresponding author
Aneta Spórna-Kucab   

Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Analysis,, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155, Kraków, Poland
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2022;72(2):159-170
Beta vulgaris L. is an important source of bioactive saponins – a group of secondary metabolites – that have spurred a growing interest due to their health-promoting properties. This study aimed to gain information on triterpene saponin profile of the peel and flesh of white, yellow and red beet of six cultivars – Snow Ball, Boldor, Ceryl, Chrobry, Forono and Tytus – harvested in Poland, in the same region. Twenty four saponins with oleanolic acid, hederagenin, akebonoic acid and gypsogenin as aglycons were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Among them, betavulgaroside I, II, III and IV were the major compounds, but the quantitative profile of saponins was found to be dependent on beet cultivar and root part, respectively. The highest content of saponins was found in the peel of yellow B. vulgaris Boldor (20812 mg/kg fresh weight, fw), while the lowest saponin content was determined in the flesh of white B. vulgaris Snow Ball (497 mg/kg fw). In addition, the total saponin content in peel and flesh in yellow beet (26054 mg/kg fw) was much higher than the total content in peel and flesh in red beet Tytus (8364 mg/kg fw) and white beet Snow Ball (1204 mg/kg fw). This is the first report on the profile of saponins in white and yellow beets.
This research was financed by the Polish National Science Centre for years 2019-2020; Project No. 2019/03/X/ST4/00968).
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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