Search for Author, Title, Keyword
Encapsulation of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Beetroot Extract with Alginate and Effect of Capsules on Rheological Properties and Stability of an Oil-in-Water Emulsion Model Food
More details
Hide details
Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas. Departamento de Alimentos, Av. Universidad s/n Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, CP. 66455, Mexico
Submission date: 2023-05-02
Acceptance date: 2023-07-18
Online publication date: 2023-08-28
Publication date: 2023-08-28
Corresponding author
Sandra Loruhama Loruhama Castillo Hernández   

Departamento de Alimentos, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas., Av Universidad s/n Cd. Universitaria, 66455, San Nicolás de Los Garza, N.L, Mexico
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2023;73(3):242–252
Alginate encapsulation is a viable alternative for the preservation of probiotics along the gastric route or within a food product during its shelf life. Furthermore, co-encapsulation with a vegetal material could act as a prebiotic and enhance the viability of the encapsulated probiotic. The rheological properties of dressing-type foods could be altered by adding an ingredient that would affect the quality of the final product. In this investigation, alginate beads loaded with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and beetroot extract were obtained by two methods (emulsification and extrusion). They were characterized by size and morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and bacteria viability under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Finally, they were added in an oil-in-water emulsion model food for which rheological properties and probiotic survival were monitored. The encapsulation efficiency ranged from 85.26 to 88%. Morphology and size of capsules varied depending on the method of encapsulation applied. No significant changes were evidenced in the rheological properties of the model food; the viscosity, the particle size (d3,2), and the coalescence rate remained stable after the addition of the capsules. Survival of L. plantarum was significantly higher in the capsules with beetroot extract. These results suggest a prebiotic effect conferred by the beetroot extract when co-encapsulated. It is worth mentioning that the incorporation of capsules with beetroot extract does not cause any destabilization of the model food.
O/W, oil-in-water; %EE, encapsulation efficiency; NB, natural beads; BB, beetroot beads; DWB, dressing without beads; DNB, dressing with natural beads; DBB, dressing with beetroot beads; COD, commercial dressing; V24h, viability after 24 h; LAB, lactic acid bacteria; cfu, colony forming unit.
The authors acknowledge the Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León for supporting this investigation by “Programa de apoyo a la investigación científica y tecnológica (Paicyt)-UANL”. This manuscript is part of the PhD thesis of Salvador López Uriarte, who was supported by a PhD scholarship from the National Council of Science and Technology of México (CONACYT).
This research received no external funding.
The authors declare no conflict of interests.
Akhiar, N.S.M. (2010). Enhancement of probiotics survival by microencapsulation with alginate and prebiotics. MMG 445 Basic Biotechnology, (6), 13-18.
Alexandrino de Oliveira, S.P., do Nascimento, H.M.A., Sampaio, K.B., de Souza, E.L. (2021). A review on bioactive compounds of beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris) with special emphasis on their beneficial effects on gut microbiota and gastrointestinal health. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 61(12), 2022–2033.
Amine, K.M., Champagne, C.P., Salmieri, S., Britten, M., St-Gelais, D., Fustier, P., Lacroix, M. (2014). Effect of palmitoylated alginate microencapsulation on viability of Bifidobacterium longum during freeze-drying. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 56(1), 111–117.
Anal, A.K., Singh, H. (2007). Recent advances in microencapsulation of probiotics for industrial applications and targeted delivery. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 18(5), 240–251.
Baek, Y.J., Lee, B.H., (2009). Chapter 12 – Probiotics and prebiotics as bioactive components in dairy products. In Park, Y.W. (Ed.). Bioactive Components of Milk and Dairy Products., Willey- Blackwell, pp. 287–310.
Barbu, V., Cotarlet, M., Bolea, C.A., Cantaragiu, A., Andronoiu, D.G., Bahrim, G.E., Enachi, E. (2020). Three types of beetroot products enriched with lactic acid bacteria. Foods, 9(6), art. no. 786.
Bautista Villarreal, M., Gallardo Rivera, C.T., García Márquez, E., Rodríguez Rodríguez, J., Núñez González, M.A., Chávez Montes, A., Báez González, J.G. (2018). Comparative reduction of egg yolk cholesterol using anionic chelating agents. Molecules, 23(12), art. no. 3204.
Borjan, D., Šeregelj, V., Andrejč, D.C., Pezo, L., Tumbas Šaponjac, V., Knez, Ž., Vulić, J., Marevci, M.K. (2022). Green techniques for preparation of red beetroot extracts with enhanced biological potential. Antioxidants, 11(5), art. no. 805.
Capela, P., Hay, T.K.C., Shah, N.P. (2006). Effect of cryoprotectants, prebiotics and microencapsulation on survival of probiotic organisms in yoghurt and freeze-dried yoghurt. Food Research International, 39(2), 203–211.
Capela, P., Hay, T.K.C., Shah, N.P. (2007). Effect of homogenisation on bead size and survival of encapsulated probiotic bacteria. Food Research International, 40(10), 1261–1269.
Castillo, S., Rodríguez, A., Bautista-Villarreal, M., García-Solano, N., Gallardo-Rivera, C., Báez-González, J.G., Sánchez-García, E., García-Alanis, K.G. (2021). Rheological and nutritional characterization of sweet corn by-product (cob) to develop a functional ingredient applied in dressings. Frontiers in Nutrition, 8, art. No. 666654.
Chávarri, M., Marañón, I., Ares, R., Ibáñez, F.C., Marzo, F., del Carmen Villarán, M. (2010). Microencapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in alginate-chitosan capsules improves survival in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 142(1–2), 185–189.
Chhikara, N., Kushwaha, K., Jaglan, S., Sharma, P., Panghal, A. (2019). Nutritional, physicochemical, and functional quality of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) incorporated Asian noodles. Cereal Chemistry, 96(1), 154–161.
Holkem, A.T., Raddatz, G.C., Nunes, G.L., Cichoski, A.J., Jacob-Lopes, E., Grosso, C.R.F., de Menezes, C.R. (2016). Development and characterization of alginate microcapsules containing Bifidobacterium BB-12 produced by emulsification/internal gelation followed by freeze drying. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 71, 302–308.
Khosravi Zanjani, M.A., Tarzi, B.G., Sharifan, A., Mohammadi, N. (2014). Microencapsulation of probiotics by calcium alginate-gelatinized starch with chitosan coating and evaluation of survival in simulated human gastro-intestinal condition. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR, 13(3), art. no. 843.
Krasaekoopt, W., Watcharapoka, S. (2014). Effect of addition of inulin and galactooligosaccharide on the survival of microencapsulated probiotics in alginate beads coated with chitosan in simulated digestive system, yogurt and fruit juice. LWT – Food Science and Technology, 57(2), 761–766.
Krstonošić, V., Dokić, L., Dokić, P., Dapčević, T. (2009). Effects of xanthan gum on physicochemical properties and stability of corn oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(8), 2212–2218.
Lazar, S., Constantin, O., Horincar, G., Georgeta, D., Stanciuc, N., Muresan, C., Rapeanu, G. (2022). Beetroot by-product as a functional ingredient for obtaining value added mayonnaise. Processes, 10(2), art. no. 227.
Li, X.Y., Chen, X.G., Cha, D.S., Park, H.J., Liu, C.S. (2009). Microencapsulation of a probiotic bacteria with alginate gelatin and its properties. Journal of Microencapsulation, 26(4), 315–324.
Lopes, S., Bueno, L., De Aguiar Júnior, F., Finkler, C.L.L. (2017). Preparation and characterization of alginate and gelatin micro-capsules containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. Anais Da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 89(3), 1601–1613.
Ma, Z., Boye, J.I. (2013). Advances in the design and production of reduced-fat and reduced-cholesterol salad dressing and mayonnaise: A review. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(3), 648–670.
Mahmoud, M., Abdallah, N.A., El-Shafei, K., Tawfik, N.F., El-Sayed, H.S. (2020). Survivability of alginate-microencapsulated Lactobacillus plantarum during storage, simulated food processing and gastrointestinal conditions. Heliyon, 6(3), art. no. e03541.
Mirmiran, P., Houshialsadat, Z., Gaeini, Z., Bahadoran, Z., Azizi, F. (2020). Functional properties of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) in management of cardio-metabolic diseases. Nutrition & Metabolism, 17, art. no. 3.
Motalebi Moghanjougi, Z., Rezazadeh Bari, M., Alizadeh Khaledabad, M., Amiri, S., Almasi, H. (2021). Microencapsulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA‐5 and Bifidobacterium animalis BB‐12 in pectin and sodium alginate: A comparative study on viability, stability, and structure. Food Science & Nutrition, 9(9), 5103-5111.
Mun, S., Kim, Y.L., Kang, C.G., Park, K.H., Shim, J.Y., Kim, Y.R. (2009). Development of reduced-fat mayonnaise using 4αGTase-modified rice starch and xanthan gum. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 44(5), 400-407.
Nordström, E.A., Teixeira, C., Montelius, C., Jeppsson, B., Larsson, N. (2021). Lactiplantibacillus plantarum 299v (LP299V®): Three decades of research. Beneficial Microbes, 12(5), 441-465.
Otalora, C.M., Bonifazi, E., Fissore, E.N., Basanta, F., Gerschenson, L.N. (2020). Thermal stability of betalains in by-products of the blanching and cutting of Beta vulgaris L. var conditiva. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 70(1), 15-24.
Petrut, R.F., Danthine, S., Blecker, C. (2016). Assessment of partial coalescence in whippable oil-in-water food emulsions. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 229, 25-33.
Płatosz, N., Sawicki, T., Wiczkowski, W. (2020). Profile of phenolic acids and flavonoids of red beet and its fermentation products. does long-term consumption of fermented beetroot juice affect phenolics profile in human blood plasma and urine? Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 70(1), 55–65.
Primacella, M., Wang, T., Acevedo, N.C. (2019). Characterization of mayonnaise properties prepared using frozen-thawed egg yolk treated with hydrolyzed egg yolk proteins as anti-gelator. Food Hydrocolloids, 96(06), 529–536.
Pupa, P., Apiwatsiri, P., Sirichokchatchawan, W., Pirarat, N., Muangsin, N., Shah, A.A., Prapasarakul, N. (2021). The efficacy of three double-microencapsulation methods for preservation of probiotic bacteria. Scientific Reports, 11(1), art. no. 13753.
Rajam, R., Subramanian, P. (2022). Encapsulation of probiotics: Past, present and future. Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 11(1), art. no. 26.
Rodríguez-Huezo, M.E., Lobato-Calleros, C., Reyes-Ocampo, J.G., Sandoval-Castilla, O., Perez-Alonso, C., Pimentel-Gonzalez, D.J. (2011). Survivability of entrapped Lactobacillus rhamnosus in liquid-and gel-core alginate beads during storage and simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química, 10(3), 353–361.
Sakin-Yilmazer, M., Dirim, S.N., Di Pinto, D., Kaymak-Ertekin, F. (2014). Yoghurt with candied chestnut: freeze drying, physical, and rheological behaviour. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 51, 3949–3955.
Shori, A.B. (2017). Microencapsulation improved probiotics survival during gastric transit. HAYATI Journal of Biosciences, 24(1), 1–5.
Sánchez, E., Morales, C.R., Castillo, S., Leos-Rivas, C., Misael, D., Martínez, O. (2016). Antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of methanolic plant extracts against nosocomial microorganisms. Evidence Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2016, art. no. 1572697.
Shafizadeh, A., Golestan, L., Ahmadi, M., Darjani, P., Ghorbani-HasanSaraei, A. (2020). Encapsulation of Lactobacillus casei in alginate microcapsules: improvement of the bacterial viability under simulated gastrointestinal conditions using flaxseed mucilage. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 14, 1901–1908.
Spórna-Kucab, A., Tekieli, A., Skalicka-Woźniak, K., Grzegorczyk, A., Świergosz, T., Wybraniec, S. (2022). Characterization of triterpene saponin composition of white, yellow and red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.). Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 72(2), 159-170.
Traynor, M., Burke, R., Frias, J.M., Gaston, E., Barry-Ryan, C. (2013). Formation and stability of an oil in water emulsion containing lecithin, xanthan gum and sunflower oil. International Food Research Journal, 20(5), 2173–2181.
Tripathi, M.K., Giri, S.K. (2014). Probiotic functional foods: Survival of probiotics during processing and storage. Journal of Functional Foods, 9, 225-241.
Tumbas Šaponjac, V., Čanadanović-Brunet, J., Ćetković, G., Jakišić, M., Vulić, J.J., Stajčić, S., Šeregelj, V. (2020). Optimisation of beetroot juice encapsulation by freeze-drying. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 70(1), 25–34.
Vijaya Kumar, B., Vijayendra, S.V., Reddy, O.V.S. (2015). Trends in dairy and non-dairy probiotic products-a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52, 6112-6124.
Ye, A., Hemar, Y., Singh, H. (2004). Enhancement of coalescence by xanthan addition to oil-in-water emulsions formed with extensively hydrolysed whey proteins. Food Hydrocolloids, 18(5), 737–746.