Search for Author, Title, Keyword
The Dose Makes the Poison: Sugar and Obesity in the United States – a Review
More details
Hide details
Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, The University of Georgia, Athens 30602, GA, United States, United States
Veterinary Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Georgia, United States
Submission date: 2019-03-13
Final revision date: 2019-06-10
Acceptance date: 2019-07-16
Online publication date: 2019-07-30
Publication date: 2019-08-22
Corresponding author
Krzysztof Czaja   

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, The University of Georgia, Athens 30602, GA, United States, United States
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2019;69(3):219-233
Two-thirds of the US population is either overweight or obese. Obesity is one of the major drivers of preventable diseases and health care costs. In the US, current estimates for these costs range from $147 to $210 billion per year. Obesity is a multifactorial disease: genetics, lifestyle choices, metabolism, and diet. Low-fat diets have been suggested as the key to weight management. However, over the past 30 years, the calories from fat in people’s diets have gone down, but obesity rates keep climbing. Evidence suggests that diets high in added sugar promote the development of obesity. However, the impact of sugar consumption on weight gain and body fat accumulation remains a controversial topic. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide basic framework information about the prevalence of obesity and sugar consumption in the US over the last five decades. We also review the process by which sugar is converted to fat and stored in the human body. The relationship between sugar consumption and obesity was analyzed using United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Sugar and Sweetener Outlook data, and obesity prevalence was analyzed using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The analysis revealed a reduction in sugar consumption concurrent with a slowing down of the annual rate of increase of obesity. However, although the data show that the sugar consumption trend is going in the right direction (declining), the US population still consumes more than 300% of the recommended daily amount of added sugar.
Special thanks to Dr. Steven D. Holladay for proofreading and providing feedback for this paper.
This work was supported by National Institutes of Health, grant no. 5R01DC013904-04.
Alonso, A.C., Goncalves, T.A., de Almeida, J.K.A., Machado-Lima, A., Ernandes, R.D., Greve, J.M.D., Garcez-Leme, L.E. (2018). Relationship between bone mineral density and body composition in elderly. Acta Ortopedica Brasileira, 26(1), 27-29.
Altschuler, S.M., Bao, X., Bieger, D., Hopkins, D.A., Miselis, R.R. (1989). Viscerotopic representation of the upper alimentary tract in the rat: sensory ganglia and nuclei of the solitary and spinal trigeminal tracts. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 283(2), 248-268.
Archer, E., Hand, G.A., Blair, S.N. (2013). Validity of U.S. Nutritional Surveillance: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Caloric Energy Intake Data, 1971–2010. PLoS One, 8(10), art. no. e76632.
Baker, J.L., Olsen, L.W., Sørensen, T.I.A. (2007). Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood. New England Journal of Medicine, 357(23), 2329-2337.
Baranowski, T., Taveras, E.M. (2018). Childhood Obesity Prevention: Changing the Focus: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., NY, USA.
Basciano, H., Federico, L., Adeli, K. (2005). Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia. Nutrition & Metabolism, 2(1), 5.
Berg, J.M., Tymoczko, J.L., Gatto, G.J., Stryer, L. (2015). Biochemistry: New York: W.H. Freeman & Company, a Macmillan Education Imprint, 8th ed.
Berne, R.M., Koeppen, B.M., Stanton, B.A. (2010). Berne & Levy Physiology. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby/Elsevier.
Berthoud, H.R, Powley, T.L. (1992). Vagal afferent innervation of the rat fundic stomach: morphological characterization of the gastric tension receptor. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 319(2), 261-276.
Berthoud, H.R., Carlson, N.R., Powley, T.L. (1991). Topography of efferent vagal innervation of the rat gastrointestinal tract. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 260(1), R200-R207.
Bervoets, L., Van Hoorenbeeck, K., Kortleven, I., Van Noten, C., Hens, N., Vael, C., Goossens, H., Desager, K.N., Vankerckhoven, V. (2013). Differences in gut microbiota composition between obese and lean children: a cross-sectional study. Gut Pathogens, 5(1), art. no. 10.
Blair, D. (1992). Dietary methodology issues related to energy balance measurement for NHANES III. Vital and Health Statistics. Ser. 4, Documents and Committee Reports, (27), 43-50.
Bray, G.A., Nielsen, S.J., Popkin, B.M. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(4), 537-543. 1998 in the text.
Broussard, D.L., Altschuler, S.M. (2000). Brainstem viscerotopic organization of afferents and efferents involved in the control of swallowing. The American Journal of Medicine, 108(4), 79-86.
Brownbill, R.A., Ilich, J.Z. (2005). Measuring body composition in overweight individuals by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. BMC Medical Imaging, 5(1), 1.
Brunton, J.A., Bayley, H.S., Atkinson, S.A. (1993). Validation and application of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to measure bone mass and body composition in small infants. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58(6), 839-845.
Caprio, S., Genel, M. (2005). Confronting the epidemic of childhood obesity. Pediatrics, 115(2), 494-495.
CDC, Center of Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). National Health and Examination Survey. Atlanta, Georgia.
CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Defining Adult Overweight and Obesity. Retrieved from [].
Chakraborti, C.K. (2015). New-found link between microbiota and obesity. World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology, 6(4), 110-119.
Cho, I., Yamanishi, S., Cox, L., Methé, B.A., Zavadil, J., Li, K., Gao, Z., Mahana, D., Raju, K., Teitler, I., Li, H., Alekseyenko, A., Blaser, M. (2012). Antibiotics in early life alter the murine colonic microbiome and adiposity. Nature, 488(7413), 621-626.
Church, T.S., Thomas, D.M., Tudor-Locke, C., Katzmarzyk, P.T., Earnest, C.P., Rodarte, R.Q., Martin, C.K., Blair, S.N., Bouchard, C. (2011). Trends over 5 decades in U.S. occupation-related physical activity and their associations with obesity. PLoS ONE, 6(5), art. no. e19657.
Cote, A.T., Harris, K.C., Panagiotopoulos, C., Sandor, G.G.S., Devlin, A.M. (2013). Childhood obesity and cardiovascular dysfunction. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 62(15), 1309-1319.
Covasa, M., Ritter, R.C. (1998). Rats maintained on high-fat diets exhibit reduced satiety in response to CCK and bombesin. Peptides, 19(8), 1407-1415.
Cox, A.J., West, N.P., Cripps, A.W. (2015). Obesity, inflammation, and the gut microbiota. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 3(3), 207-215.
Czaja, K., Ritter, R.C., Burns, G.A. (2006). Vagal afferent neurons projecting to the stomach and small intestine exhibit multiple N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit phenotypes. Brain Research, 1119(1), 86-93.
Daniels, S.R. (2009). Complications of obesity in children and adolescents. International Journal of Obesity, 33(S1), S60.
Deckelbaum, R.J., Williams, C.L. (2001). Childhood obesity: The health issue. Obesity Research, 9(S11), 239S-243S.
De Graaf, C., Blom, W.A.M., Smeets, P.A.M., Stafleu, A., Hendriks, H.F.J. (2004). Biomarkers of satiation and satiety. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 79(6), 946-961.
Dietz, W.H, Bellizzi, M.C. (1999). Introduction: The use of Body Mass Index to assess obesity in children. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 70(1), 123S-125S
Do, M., Lee, E., Oh, M.J., Kim, Y., Park, H.Y. (2018). High-glucose or-fructose diet cause changes of the gut microbiota and metabolic disorders in mice without body weight change. Nutrients, 10(6), art. no. 761.
Duca, F.A., Sakar, Y., Lepage, P., Devime, F., Langelier, B., Doré, J., Covasa, M. (2014). Replication of obesity and associated signaling pathways through transfer of microbiota from obese-prone rats. Diabetes, 63(5), 1624-1636.
Elliott, S.S., Keim, N.L., Stern, J.S., Teff, K., Havel, P.J. (2002). Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 76(5), 911-922.
Fields, D.A., George, B., Williams, M., Whitaker, K., Allison, D.B., Teague, A., Demerath, E.W. (2017). Associations between human breast milk hormones and adipocytokines and infant growth and body composition in the first 6 months of life. Pediatric Obesity, 12(S1), 78-85.
Flegal, K.M., Carroll, M.D., Ogden, C.L., Curtin, L.R. (2010). Prevalence and trends in obesity among us adults, 1999-2008. JAMA, 303(3), 235-241.
Flegal, K.M., Kruszon-Moran, D., Carroll, M.D., Fryar, C.D., Ogden, C.L. (2016). Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014. JAMA, 315(21), 2284-2291.
Fox, K.R., Hillsdon, M., (2007). Physical activity and obesity. Obesity Reviews, 8, 115-121.
Fryar, C.D., Carroll, M.D., Ogden, C.L. (2014). Prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents: United States, 1963–1965 through 2011–2012. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Health Statistics.
Fryar, C.D., Carroll, M.D., Ogden, C.L. (2016). Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults aged 20 and over: United States, 1960-1962 through 2013-2014. National Center for Health Statistics Data, Health E-Stats.
Gawey, B., Czaja, K. (2017). Broad-spectrum antibiotic abuse and its connections to obesity. Journal of Nutritional Health and Food Science, 5(4), 1-21.
Gomez-Arango, L.F., Barrett, H.L., McIntyre, H.D., Callaway, L.K., Morrison, M., Nitert, M.D. (2016). Connections between the gut microbiome and metabolic hormones in early pregnancy in overweight and obese women. Diabetes, 65(8), 2214-2223.
Goran, M.I. (1998). Measurement issues related to studies of childhood obesity: assessment of body composition, body fat distribution, physical activity, and food intake. Pediatrics, 101(Supplement 2), 505-518.
Griera, J.L., Manzanares, J.M., Barbany, M., Contreras, J., Amigó, P., Salas-Salvadó, J. (2007). Physical activity, energy balance and obesity. Public Health Nutrition, 10(10A), 1194-1199.
Haley, S.E., Reed, J.E., Lin, B.H., Cook, A. (2005). Sweetener consumption in the United States: distribution by demographic and product characteristics. ERS Outlook Report Series, 1-19.
Havel, P.J. (2005). Dietary fructose: implications for dysregulation of energy homeostasis and lipid/carbohydrate metabolism. Nutrition Reviews, 63(5), 133-157.
Hu, F.B. (2008). Measurements of adiposity and body composition. In F.B. Hu Obesity Epidemiology, Chapter 4, Oxford University Press, pp. 53-83.
Ismail, N.A., Ragab, S.H., ElBaky, A.A., Shoeib, A.R.S., Alhosary, Y., Fekry, D. (2011). Frequency of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes in gut microbiota in obese and normal weight Egyptian children and adults. Archives of Medical Science: AMS, 7(3), 501-507.
Jeffery, R.W., Wing, R.R., Sherwood, N.E., Tate, D.F. (2003). Physical activity and weight loss: does prescribing higher physical activity goals improve outcome?. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 78(4), 684-689.
Johnson, E.L., Heaver, S.L., Walters, W.A., Ley, R.E. (2017). Microbiome and metabolic disease: revisiting the bacterial phylum Bacteroidetes. Journal of Molecular Medicine, 95(1), 1-8.
Johnson, R.K., Appel, L.J., Brands, M., Howard, B.V., Lefevre, M., Lustig, R.H., Sacks, F., Steffen, L.M., Wylie-Rosett, J. (2009). Dietary sugars intake and cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 120(11), 1011-1020.
Kantor, L.S., Lipton, K., Manchester, A., Oliveira, V. (1997). Estimating and addressing America's food losses. Food Review: The Magazine of Food Economics, 20(1482-2016-121447), 2-12.
Kahn, R., Sievenpiper, J.L. (2014). Dietary sugar and body weight: Have we reached a crisis in the epidemic of obesity and diabetes? We have, but the pox on sugar is overwrought and overworked. Diabetes Care, 37(4), 957-962.
Khan, T.A., Sievenpiper, J.L. (2016). Controversies about sugar: results from systematic reviews and meta-analyses on obesity, cardiometabolic disease and diabetes. European Journal of Nutrition, 55(Suppl. 2), 25-43.
Katzmarzyk, P.T., Baur, L.A., Blair, S.N., Lambert, E.V., Oppert, J.M., Riddoch, C. (2008). International conference on physical activity and obesity in children: summary statement and recommendations. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 3(1), 3-21.
Kim, K., Gu, W., Lee, I., Joh, E., Kim, D. (2012). High fat diet-induced gut microbiota exacerbates inflammation and obesity in mice via the TLR4 signaling pathway. PLoS ONE, 7(10), art. no. e47713.
Kirchgessner, A.L., Gershon, M.D. (1989). Identification of vagal efferent fibers and putative target neurons in the enteric nervous system of the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 285(1), 38-53.
Kuczmarski, R.J. (2002). 2000 CDC growth charts for the United States; methods and development, [].
Levin, R.J. (1994). Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates - from molecules and membranes to humans. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59(suppl.), 690S-698S.
Ley, R.E., Bäckhed, F., Turnbaugh, P., Lozupone, C.A., Knight, R.D., Gordon, J.I. (2005). Obesity alters gut microbial ecology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(31), 11070-11075.
Little, T.J., Horowitz, M., Feinle-Bisset, C. (2007). Modulation by high-fat diets of gastrointestinal function and hormones associated with the regulation of energy intake: implications for the pathophysiology of obesity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86(3), 531-541.
Liu, Y., Tong, G., Tong, W., Lu, L., Qin, X. (2011). Can body mass index, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio and waist-height ratio predict the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors in Chinese subjects? BMC Public Health, 11, 35-35.
Lohman, T.G. (1986). Applicability of body composition techniques and constants for children and youths. Exercise and Ssport Sciences Reviews, 14, 325-358.
Ludwig, D.S., Peterson, K.E., Gortmaker, S.L. (2001). Relation between consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks and childhood obesity: a prospective, observational analysis. The Lancet, 357(9255), 505-508.
Malik, V.S., Schulze, M.B., Hu, F.B. (2006). Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84(2), 274-288.
Marieb, E.N. (2001). Human Anatomy & Physiology: San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 5th ed.
Marteau, T.M., Hollands, G.J., Shemilt, I., Jebb, S.A. (2015). Downsizing: policy options to reduce portion sizes to help tackle obesity. BMJ, 351, art no. h5863.
Miftahof, R.N. (2017). Biomechanics of the Human Stomach. [electronic resource]: Cham : Springer International Publishing: Imprint: Springer.
Mergenthaler, P., Lindauer, U., Dienel, G.A., Meisel, A. (2013). Sugar for the brain: the role of glucose in physiological and pathological brain function. Trends in Neurosciences, 36(10), 587-597.
Moran, T.H., Baldessarini, A.R., Salorio, C.F., Lowery, T., Schwartz, G.J. (1997). Vagal afferent and efferent contributions to the inhibition of food intake by cholecystokinin. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 272(4), R1245-R1251.
Morris, M.J., Beilharz, J.E., Maniam, J., Reichelt, A.C., Westbrook, R.F. (2015). Why is obesity such a problem in the 21st century? The intersection of palatable food, cues and reward pathways, stress, and cognition. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 58, 36-45.
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2013). According to Waist Circumference. Retrieved from [
Norgren, R. (1983). Afferent interactions of cranial nerves involved in ingestion. Journal of the Autonomic Nervous System, 9(1), 67-77.
Ogden, C.L., Carroll, M.D. (2010). Prevalence of overweight, obesity, and extreme obesity among adults: United States, trends 1960–1962 through 2007–2008. National Center for Health Statistics, 6(1), 1-6.
Ogden, C.L., Carroll, M.D., Lawman, H.G., Fryar, C.D., Kruszon-Moran, D., Kit, B.K., Flegal, K.M., (2016). Trends in obesity prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988-1994 through 2013-2014. JAMA, 315(21), 2292-2299.
Ouchi, N., Parker, J.L., Lugus, J.J., Walsh, K. (2011). Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease. Nature Reviews Immunology, 11(2), 85-97.
Piercy, K.L., Troiano, R.P., Ballard, R.M., Carlson, S.A., Fulton, J.E., Galuska, D.A., George, S.M., Olson, R.D. (2018). The physical activity guidelines for americans. JAMA, 320(19), 2020-2028. Pierce in the text.
Poonawalla, A.H., Sjoberg, B.P., Rehm, J.L., Hernando, D., Hines, C.D., Irarrazaval, P., Reeder, S.B. (2013). Adipose tissue MRI for quantitative measurement of central obesity. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 37(3), 707-716.
Prechtl, J.C., Powley, T.L. (1990). The fiber composition of the abdominal vagus of the rat. Anatomy and Embryology, 181(2), 101-115.
Raushel, F.M., Cleland, W.W. (1973). The substrate and anomeric specificity of fructokinase. The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 248(23), 8174-8177.
Reilly, J.J., Methven, E., McDowell, Z.C., Hacking, B., Alexander, D., Steward, L., Kelnar, C.J.H. (2003). Health consequences of obesity. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 88(9), 748-752.
Rippe, J.M., Angelopoulos, T.J. (2016). Sugars, obesity, and cardiovascular disease: results from recent randomized control trials. European Journal of Nutrition, 55(S2), 45-53.
Ritter, R.C. (2004). Gastrointestinal mechanisms of satiation for food. Physiology & Behavior, 81(2), 249-273.
Rokholm, B., Baker, J.L., Sørensen, T.I.A. (2010). The levelling off of the obesity epidemic since the year 1999–a review of evidence and perspectives. Obesity Reviews, 11(12), 835-846.
Romero-Corral, A., Somers, V.K., Sierra-Johnson, J., Thomas, R.J., Collazo-Clavell, M.L., Korinek, J., Allison, T.G., Batsis, J.A., Sert-Kuniypshi, F.H., Lopez-Jimenez, F. (2008). Accuracy of body mass index in diagnosing obesity in the adult general population. International Journal of Obesity, 32(6), 959-966.
Rothman, K.J. (2008). BMI-related errors in the measurement of obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 32, S56-S59.
Rothney, M.P., Brychta, R.J., Schaefer, E.V., Chen, K.Y., Skarulis, M.C. (2009). Body composition measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry half-body scans in obese adults. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 17(6), 1281-1286.
Ruderman, N., Chisholm, D., Pi-Sunyer, X., Schneider, S. (1998). The metabolically obese, normal-weight individual revisited. Diabetes, 47(5), 699-713.
Saha, P., Manoharan, P., Arthur, S., Sundaram, S., Kekuda, R., Sundaram, U. (2015). Molecular mechanism of regulation of villus cell Na-K-ATPase in the chronically inflamed mammalian small intestine. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes, 1848(2), 702-711.
Sarria, A., Garcia-Llop, L.A., Moreno, LA., Fleta, J., Morellon, M.P., Bueno, M. (1998). Skinfold thickness measurements are better predictors of body fat percentage than body mass index in male Spanish children and adolescents. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 52(8), 573-576.
Schulze, M.B., Manson, J.E., Ludwig, D.S., Colditz, G.A., Stampfer, M.J., Willett, WC., Hu, FB. (2004). Sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and middle-aged women. JAMA, 292(8), 927-934.
Schwartz, G.J. (2000). The role of gastrointestinal vagal afferents in the control of food intake: current prospects. Nutrition, 16(10), 866-873.
Seidell, J.C., Halberstadt, J. (2016). Obesity: The obesity epidemic in the USA—no end in sight? Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 12(9), 499-500.
Sen, T., Cawthon, C.R., Ihde, B.T., Hajnal, A., DiLorenzo, P.M., de la Serre, C.B., Czaja, K. (2017). Diet-driven microbiota dysbiosis is associated with vagal remodeling and obesity. Physiology & Behavior, 173, 305-317.
Shoaie, S., Ghaffari, P., Kovatcheva-Datchary, P., Mardinoglu, A., Sen, P., Pujos-Guillot, E., de Wouters, T., Juste, C., Rizkalla, S., Chilloux, J., Hoyles, L., Nicholson, J.K., Consortium MICRO-Obes., Dore, J., Dumas, M.E., Clement, K., Backhed, F., Nielsen, J. (2015). Quantifying diet-induced metabolic changes of the human gut microbiome. Cell Metabolism, 22(2), 320-331.
Silver, H.J., Welch, E.B., Avison, M.J., Niswender, K.D. (2010). Imaging body composition in obesity and weight loss: challenges and opportunities. Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, 3, 337-347.
Skinner, A.C., Perrin, E.M., Moss, L.A., Skelton, J.A. (2015). Cardiometabolic risks and severity of obesity in children and young adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 373(14), 1307-1317.
Stanhope, K.L., Schwarz, J.M., Havel, P.J. (2013). Adverse metabolic effects of dietary fructose: results from recent epidemiological, clinical, and mechanistic studies. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 24(3), 198-206.
Stanhope, K.L., Schwarz, J.M., Keim, N.L., Griffen, S.C., Bremer, A.A., Graham, J.L., Hatcher, B., Cox, C.L., Dyachenko, A., Zhang, W., McGahan, J.P., Seibert, A., Krauss, R.M., Chiu, S., Schaefer, E.J., Ai, M., Otokozawa, S., Nakajima, K., Nakano, T., Beysen, C., Hellerstein, M.K., Berglund, L., Havel, P.J. (2009). Consuming fructose-sweetened, not glucose-sweetened, beverages increases visceral adiposity and lipids and decreases insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese humans. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 119(5), 1322-1334.
Stenesh, J., Stenesh, J. (1989). Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2nd edition. Wiley, New York.
Talma, H., Chinapaw, M.J.M., Bakker, B., HiraSing, R.A., Terwee, C.B., Altenburg, T.M. (2013). Bioelectrical impedance analysis to estimate body composition in children and adolescents: a systematic review and evidence appraisal of validity, responsiveness, reliability and measurement error. Obesity Reviews, 14(11), 895-905.
Te Morenga, L., Mallard, S., Mann, J. (2013). Dietary sugars and body weight: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and cohort studies. BMJ, 346, art. no. e7492.
Tlaskalová-Hogenová, H., Štěpánková, R., Kozáková, H., Hudcovic, T., Vannucci, L., Tučková, L., Rossman, P., Hrncir, T., Kverka, M., Zákostelská, Z., Klimesova, K., Pribylova, J., Bartova, J., Sanchez, D., Fundova, P., Borovska, D., Srutkova, D., Zidek, Z., Schwarzer, M., Drastich, P., Funda, D.P. (2011). The role of gut microbiota (commensal bacteria) and the mucosal barrier in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and cancer: contribution of germ-free and gnotobiotic animal models of human diseases. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 8(2), 110-120.
Trowbridge, F.L., Marks, J.S., de Romaña, G.L., Madrid, S., Boutton, T.W., Klein, P.D. (1987). Body composition of Peruvian children with short stature and high weight-for-height. II. Implications for the interpretation for weight-for-height as an indicator of nutritional status. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46(3), 411-418.
Turnbaugh, P.J., Hamady, M., Yatsunenko, T., Cantarel, B.L., Duncan, A., Ley, R.E., Sogin, M.L., Jones, W.J., Roe, BA., Affortit, J.P., Egholm, M., Henrissat, B., Heath, AC., Knight, R., Gordon, J.I. (2009). A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins. Nature, 457(7228), 480-484.
USDA, ERS. (2017). Sugar and Sweeteners Outlook.
Vaughn, A.C., Cooper, E.M., DiLorenzo, P.M., O’Loughlin, L.J., Konkel, M.E., Peters, J.H., Hajnal, A., Sen, T., Lee, S.H., de La Serre, C.B., Czaja, K. (2017). Energy-dense diet triggers changes in gut microbiota, reorganization of gut-brain vagal communication and increases body fat accumulation. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 77(1), 18-30.
Waters, E., de Silva-Sanigorski, A., Burford, B.J., Brown, T., Campbell, K.J., Gao, Y., Prosser, L., Summerbell, C.D. (2011). Interventions for preventing obesity in children. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 7(12), art. no. CD001871.
Watson, R.R. (2014). Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Abdominal Obesity: Amsterdam : Elsevier/Academic Press.
WHO, World Health Organization (1948). Manual of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Injuries, and Causes of Death: Sixth Revision of the International Lists of Diseases and Causes of Death, adopted 1948.
WHO, World Health Organization. (2011). Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio: Report of a WHO Expert Consultation, Geneva, 8-11 December 2008.
Total Sugar Intake and Macro and Micronutrients in Children Aged 6–8 Years: The ANIVA Study
María Morales-Suarez-Varela, Isabel Peraita-Costa, Agustín Llopis-Morales, Yolanda Picó, Maira Bes-Rastrollo, Agustín Llopis-Gonzalez
Carbohydrates in nutrition: friend or foe?
Anne Großkopf, Andreas Simm
Zeitschrift für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
Disparities in Sources of Added Sugars and High Glycemic Index Foods in Diets of US Children, 2011–2016
Rienna Russo, Brandilyn Peters, Vanessa Salcedo, Vivian Wang, Simona Kwon, Bei Wu, Stella Yi
Preventing Chronic Disease
High-Quality Gluten-Free Sponge Cakes without Sucrose: Inulin-Type Fructans as Sugar Alternatives
Urszula Krupa-Kozak, Natalia Drabińska, Cristina Rosell, Beata Piłat, Małgorzata Starowicz, Tomasz Jeliński, Beata Szmatowicz
Factors affecting COVID-19 mortality: an exploratory study
Ashish Upadhyaya, Sushant Koirala, Rand Ressler, Kamal Upadhyaya
Journal of Health Research
Knowledge about Sugar Sources and Sugar Intake Guidelines in Portuguese Consumers
Marília Prada, Magda Saraiva, Margarida Garrido, David Rodrigues, Diniz Lopes
Confection Confusion: Interplay Between Diet, Taste, and Nutrition
Christina May, Monica Dus
Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism
Pterostilbene influences glycemia and lipidemia and enhances antioxidant status in the liver of rats that consumed sucrose solution
Morais de, Ellen Cruz, Rosa da, Roberta Cesário, Jurandir Comar, Carolina Moreira, Almeida de, Fábio Seiva
Life Sciences
Exposure to high fructose corn syrup during adolescence in the mouse alters hepatic metabolism and the microbiome in a sex‐specific manner
Shazia Bhat, Sara Pinney, Katherine Kennedy, Cole McCourt, Miles Mundy, Michael Surette, Deborah Sloboda, Rebecca Simmons
The Journal of Physiology
Goji Berry and Whey Protein Concentrate Enriched Rice Extrudates - Physical Properties and Accessibility of Bioactives
Thomas Ménabréaz, Mathias Dorsaz, Dimitri Bocquel, Isabelle Udrisard, Agnieszka Kosinska-Cagnazzo, Wilfried Andlauer
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Association between hourly wages and dietary intake after the first phase of implementation of the Minneapolis minimum wage ordinance
Leah Chapman, Seth Berkowitz, Alice Ammerman, Marco De, Shu Ng, Catherine Zimmer, Caitlin Caspi
Public Health Nutrition
Fatty acids role on obesity induced hypothalamus inflammation: From problem to solution – A review
Ana Salsinha, Luis Rodríguez-Alcalá, João Relvas, Manuela Pintado
Trends in Food Science & Technology
Effects of high fat diets and supplemental tart cherry and fish oil on obesity and type 2 diabetes in male and female C57BL/6J and TALLYHO/Jng mice
Jacaline Parkman, Kristiana Sklioutovskaya-Lopez, Kalhara Menikdiwela, Logan Freeman, Naima Moustaid-Moussa, Jung Kim
The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
High Fructose Corn Syrup-Moderate Fat Diet Potentiates Anxio-Depressive Behavior and Alters Ventral Striatal Neuronal Signaling
Ayanabha Chakraborti, Christopher Graham, Sophie Chehade, Bijal Vashi, Alan Umfress, Pradeep Kurup, Benjamin Vickers, H. Chen, Rahul Telange, Taylor Berryhill, Der Van, Mickie Powell, Stephen Barnes, Casey Morrow, Daniel Smith, M. Mukhtar, Stephen Watts, Gregory Kennedy, James Bibb
Frontiers in Neuroscience
Longitudinal geo-referenced field evidence for the heightened BMI responsiveness of obese women to price discounts on carbonated soft drinks
Yun-Hsuan Wu, Spencer Moore, Yu Ma, Laurette Dube, Clemens Fürnsinn
Sugar reduction methods and their application in confections: a review
Elle McKenzie, Soo-Yeun Lee
Food Science and Biotechnology
A High-Sugar Diet Consumption, Metabolism and Health Impacts with a Focus on the Development of Substance Use Disorder: A Narrative Review
Kacper Witek, Karolina Wydra, Małgorzata Filip
Non-nutritive sweeteners and their impacts on the gut microbiome and host physiology
Irene Richardson, Steven Frese
Frontiers in Nutrition
Leveraging Randomized Controlled Trial Design: HIV and Wellness Interventions with Marginalized Populations
Dawn Goddard-Eckrich, Brittany Thomas, Louisa Gilbert, Angela Afiah, Timothy Hunt, Bright Sarfo, Elwin Wu, Amar Mandavia, Mingway Chang, Lisa Matthews, Jessica Johnson, Sandra Rodriguez, Karen Johnson, Nabila El-Bassel
Research on Social Work Practice
Significantly different roles of economic affluence in sex-specific obesity prevalence rates: understanding more modifications within female body weight management
Wenpeng You, Maciej Henneberg
Scientific Reports
Consumer understanding of sugar types predicts food label use
Chantelle Clarke, Kate Abel, Talitha Best
Nutrition & Food Science
Maternal age, obesity and hyperglycaemia are associated with a delay in preimplantation development in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes
Joaquín Lilao-Garzón, Yeray Brito-Casillas, Oscar Quesada-Canales, Ana Wägner, Silvia Muñoz-Descalzo
Food Structure Engineering and Design for Improved Nutrition, Health and Well-Being
Ana Gomes, Ana Bourbon, Ana Peixoto, Ana Silva, Ana Tasso, Carina Almeida, Clarisse Nobre, Cláudia Nunes, Claudia Sánchez, Daniela Gonçalves, Diogo Castelo-Branco, Diogo Figueira, Elisabete Coelho, Joana Gonçalves, José Teixeira, Castro Pastrana, Manuel Coimbra, Manuela Pintado, Cerqueira Ribeiro, Pablo Fuciños, Paula Teixeira, Pedro Fernandes, Vitor Alves
Precision Nutrition: Recent Advances in Obesity
V. Voruganti
Eating Disorders
Anna Dolgon-Krutolow, Tyler Mason
Total Usual Nutrient Intakes and Nutritional Status of United Arab Emirates Children (4 Years–12.9 Years): Findings from the Kids Nutrition and Health Survey (KNHS) 2021
Nahla Hwalla, Lara Chehade, Lynda O’Neill, Samer Kharroubi, Amira Kassis, Ismail Cheikh, Dhaheri Al, Habiba Ali, Sarah Ibrahim, Fatima Chokor, Maysm Mohamad, Wafaa Ayesh, Lara Nasreddine, Farah Naja
Analysis of fibre and sugar content in foodstuffs commonly used by the population in the Republic of Serbia
Margarita Dodevska
Glasnik javnog zdravlja
Updated epidemiology of gastrointestinal cancers in East Asia
Junjie Huang, Don Lucero-Prisno, Lin Zhang, Wanghong Xu, Sunny Wong, Siew Ng, Martin Wong
Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Total sugar intake is associated with higher prevalence of depressive symptoms in obese adults
Ping Li, Fuzai Yin, Yanru Zhao, Yali Liu, Ru Zhang, Jia Wang, Wenqi Lu, Qingsheng Wang, Jing Zhang
Frontiers in Public Health
Association between dental caries and obesity among Libyan schoolchildren during the armed conflict in Benghazi
Entesar Aoun, Lamis Ballo, Sara Elhabony, Arheiam Arheiam
BMC Oral Health
Association between Family and School Pressures, Consumption of Ultra-Processed Beverages, and Obesity in Preadolescents: A School-Based Epidemiological Study
Ioannis Gketsios, Thomas Tsiampalis, Alexandra Foscolou, Ioanna Kalafati, Tonia Vassilakou, Aikaterini Kanellopoulou, Venetia Notara, George Antonogeorgos, Andrea Rojas-Gil, Odysseas Androutsos, Ekaterina Kornilaki, Areti Lagiou, Demosthenes Panagiotakos, Rena Kosti
Global nutritional challenges of reformulated food: A review
Helen Onyeaka, Ogueri Nwaiwu, KeChrist Obileke, Taghi Miri, Zainab Al‐Sharify
Food Science & Nutrition
Eating Disorders
Anna Dolgon-Krutolow, Tyler Mason
Dietary Patterns and Practices and Leucocyte Telomere Length: Findings from the UK Biobank
Vasiliki Bountziouka, Christopher Nelson, Qingning Wang, Crispin Musicha, Veryan Codd, Nilesh Samani
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Improvement of energy metabolism associated with NUTRIOSE® soluble fiber, a dietary ingredient exhibiting prebiotic properties, requires intestinal gluconeogenesis
Justine Vily-Petit, Maud Soty, Marine Silva, Manon Micoud, Clara Bron, Laetitia Guérin-Deremaux, Gilles Mithieux
Food Research International
Fermented Whey Ewe’s Milk-Based Fruit Smoothies: Bio-Recycling and Enrichment of Phenolic Compounds and Improvement of Protein Digestibility and Antioxidant Activity
Ali Tlais, Elisabetta Trossolo, Stefano Tonini, Pasquale Filannino, Marco Gobbetti, Cagno Di
The impact of the Oakland sugar-sweetened beverage tax on price promotions of sugar-sweetened and alternative beverages
Osama El-Sayed, Lisa Powell, Francis Kasujja
Hidden (added) sugar and clear cardiovascular risk: literature review
Victoria Sergeeva
A review of the state of sweeteners science: the natural versus artificial non-caloric sweeteners debate. Stevia rebaudiana and Siraitia grosvenorii into the spotlight
Ana Muñoz-Labrador, Oswaldo Hernandez-Hernandez, F. Moreno
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Strategies to Improve the Quality of Foods
Antonio García-Cordero, Israel Ibarra, Alexandra Ferreira, Jose Rodriguez, Mirian Pateiro, Eva Santos
Relevance of Phytochemical Taste for Anti-Cancer Activity: A Statistical Inquiry
Teodora-Cristiana Grădinaru, Marilena Gilca, Adelina Vlad, Dorin Dragoș
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
The role of body mass index on the association between the energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index and hyperuricemia: a mediation analysis based on NHANES (2007–2016)
Qingzhen He, Qingzhao Zheng, Houze Diao, Mingyuan Li, Qing Zhu, Fang Fang, Weiwei Cui
International Journal of Obesity
Fatty acid profiling and oxidative stability of biscuits available in the market of the city of Ludhiana, India
Prabhjot Kaur, Monika Choudhary, Sanjula Sharma
Scientific Reports
Added sugar intake is associated with weight gain and risk of developing obesity over 30 years: The CARDIA study
Emily Endy, So-Yun Yi, Brian Steffen, James Shikany, David Jacobs, Rae Goins, Lyn Steffen
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases
Seeking for non‐friendly chemical elements in tabletop sugar and zero to low‐calorie sweetener sachets
Hussein Moussa, Diego Espinola, Sandy Hernández, Marcelo Hönnicke
X-Ray Spectrometry
Innovative high fat diet establishes a novel zebrafish model for the study of visceral obesity
Katarzyna Smolińska, Jan Sobczyński, Aleksandra Szopa, Artur Wnorowski, Ewa Tomaszewska, Siemowit Muszyński, Anna Winiarska-Mieczan, Tomasz Czernecki, Agata Bielak, Katarzyna Dobrowolska, Kacper Smoliński, Renata Klebaniuk, Piotr Dobrowolski
Scientific Reports
Physicochemical Properties of Apple Purees and Peel Extract for Potential Use in Pastry Products
Huțu Dana, Amariei Sonia
Applied Sciences
Less Favorable Nutri-Score Consumption Ratings Are Prospectively Associated with Abdominal Obesity in Older Adults
Jimena Rey-García, Diana María Mérida, Carolina Donat-Vargas, Helena Sandoval-Insausti, Montserrat Rodríguez-Ayala, José Ramón Banegas, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Pilar Guallar-Castillón
The effects of sugar substitution with cinnamon powder in moringa jelly candy
N F Sadek, D B Lie
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top