ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Changes in the Composition of Aroma and Phenolic Compounds Induced by Different Enological Practices of Croatian White Wine
Marina Tomašević 1  
,  
Klemen Lisjak 2  
,  
Andreja Vanzo 2  
,  
Leo Gracin 3  
,  
Natka Ćurko 1  
,  
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Food Engineering, University of Zagreb Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Croatia
2
Department of Fruit Growing, Viticulture and Oenology, Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, Hacquetova ulica 17, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Department of Marine Studies, University of Split University, Ruđera Boškovića 37, 21000 Split, Croatia
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Marina Tomašević   

Department of Food Engineering, University of Zagreb Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Pierottijeva 6, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia
Publish date: 2019-09-25
Submission date: 2019-04-18
Final revision date: 2019-09-09
Acceptance date: 2019-09-13
 
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of pre-fermentative maceration, Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts during alcoholic fermentation, and antioxidant additions (sulfur dioxide and glutathione) at bottling on the compositions of aroma and phenolic compounds of white wine Pošip (Vitis vinifera L.). Additionally, for the first time the insight in volatile thiol precursors in Pošip grape was given, wherein higher concentrations of glutathionylated thiol precursors in comparison to cysteinylated ones were determined. Regarding the applied practices, significant differences among produced wines were established: pre-fermentative maceration resulted in a decrease of 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate (3SHA) and a slight increase of C6 compounds; indigenous yeasts produced higher concentrations of terpenes and esters, while sequential fermentation with Torulaspora delbrueckii also influenced higher concentrations of esters. Most abundant phenolic compound was caffeic acid, except for wine produced by indigenous yeasts where trans-caftaric acid was predominant. Finally, combination of higher SO2 and glutathione resulted in higher concentrations of thiols.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors wish to thank Luka Krajančić winery for the setting up of the experiment and for the donation of wine.
FUNDING
The study was supported by Grants of University of Zagreb and by Slovenian Research Agency (research programs No. P4-0133 and P1-0179).
 
REFERENCES (52)
1.
Azzolini, M., Fedrizzi, B., Tosi, E., Finato, F., Vagnoli, P., Scrinzi, C., Zapparoli, G. (2012). Effects of Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mixed cultures on fermentation and aroma of Amarone wine. European Food Research and Technology, 235(2), 303-313.
 
2.
Azzolini, M., Tosi, E., Lorenzini, M., Finato, F., Zapparoli, G. (2015). Contribution to the aroma of white wines by controlled Torulaspora delbrueckii cultures in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 31(2), 277-293.
 
3.
Bavčar, D., Baša Česnik, H., Čuš, F., Košmerl, T. (2011). The influence of skin contact during alcoholic fermentation on the aroma composition of Ribolla Gialla and Malvasia Istriana Vitis vinifera (L.) grape wines. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 46(9), 1801-1808.
 
4.
Belda, I., Ruiz, J., Beisert, B., Navascués, E., Marquina, D., Calderón, F., Rauhut, D., Benito, S., Santos, A. (2017). Influence of Torulaspora delbrueckii in varietal thiol (3-SH and 4-MSP) release in wine sequential fermentations. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 257(Supplement C), 183-191.
 
5.
Bengoechea, L., Hernández, T., Quesada, C., Bartolomé, B., Estrella, I., Gómez-Cordovés, C. (1995). Structure of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives established by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection. Chromatographia, 41(1-2), 94-98.
 
6.
Benkwitz, F., Tominaga, T., Kilmartin, P.A., Lund, C., Wohlers, M., Nicolau, L. (2012). Identifying the chemical composition related to the distinct aroma characteristics of New Zealand Sauvignon blanc wines. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 63(1), 62-72.
 
7.
Bonnaffoux, H., Delpech, S., Rémond, E., Schneider, R., Roland, A., Cavelier, F. (2018). Revisiting the evaluation strategy of varietal thiol biogenesis. Food Chemistry, 268, 126-133.
 
8.
Bonnaffoux, H., Roland, A., Rémond, E., Delpech, S., Schneider, R., Cavelier, F. (2017). First identification and quantification of S-3-(hexan-1-ol)-γ-glutamyl-cysteine in grape must as a potential thiol precursor, using UPLC-MS/MS analysis and stable isotope dilution assay. Food Chemistry, 237, 877-886.
 
9.
Capone, D.L., Ristic, R., Pardon, K.H., Jeffery, D.W. (2015). Simple quantitative determination of potent thiols at ultratrace levels in wine by derivatization and high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analysis. Analytical Chemistry, 87(2), 1226-1231.
 
10.
Capone, D.L., Sefton, M.A., Hayasaka, Y., Jeffery, D.W. (2010). Analysis of precursors to wine odorant 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol using HPLC-MS/MS: Resolution and quantitation of diastereomers of 3-S-cysteinylhexan-1-ol and 3-S-glutathionylhexan-1-ol. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(3), 1390-1395.
 
11.
Capone, D.L., Sefton, M.A., Jeffery, D.W. (2011). Application of a modified method for 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol determination to investigate the relationship between free thiol and related conjugates in grape juice and wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(9), 4649-4658.
 
12.
Cejudo-Bastante, M.J., Castro-Vázquez, L., Hermosín-Gutiérrez, I., Pérez-Coello, M.S. (2011). Combined effects of prefermentative skin maceration and oxygen addition of must on color-related phenolics, volatile composition, and sensory characteristics of Airén white wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(22), 12171-12182.
 
13.
Choné, X., Lavigne-Cruège, V., Tominaga, T., van Leeuwen, C., Castagnède, C., Saucier, C., Dubourdieu, D. (2006). Effect of vine nitrogen status on grape aromatic potential: Flavor precursors (S-cysteine conjugates), glutathione and phenolic content in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc grape juice. Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, 40(1), 1-6.
 
14.
Darriet, P., Thibon, C., Dubourdieu, D., Gerós, H., Chaves, M., Delrot, S. (2012). Aroma and aroma precursors in grape berry. In H. Gerós, M. M. Chaves & S. Delrot (Eds.), The Biochemistry of the Grape Berry, Bentham Science Publishers, Emirate of Sharjah, pp. 111-136.
 
15.
Di Lecce, G., Boselli, E., D'Ignazi, G., Frega, N.G. (2013). Evolution of phenolics and glutathione in Verdicchio wine obtained with maceration under reductive conditions. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 53(1), 54-60.
 
16.
Escudero, A., Campo, E., Fariña, L., Cacho, J., Ferreira, V. (2007). Analytical characterization of the aroma of five premium red wines. Insights into the role of odor families and the concept of fruitiness of wines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(11), 4501-4510.
 
17.
Ferreira-Lima, N.E., Burin, V.M., Caliari, V., Bordignon-Luiz, M.T. (2016). Impact of pressing conditions on the phenolic composition, radical scavenging aActivity and glutathione content of Brazilian Vitis vinifera white wines and evolution during bottle ageing. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 9(6), 944-957.
 
18.
Fracassetti, D., Coetzee, C., Vanzo, A., Ballabio, D., Du Toit, W. (2013). Oxygen consumption in South African Sauvignon Blanc wines: Role of glutathione, sulphur dioxide and certain phenolics. South African Journal for Enology and Viticulture, 34(2), 156-169.
 
19.
Janeš, L., Lisjak, K., Vanzo, A. (2010). Determination of glutathione content in grape juice and wine by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Analytica Chimica Acta, 674(2), 239-242.
 
20.
Jeffery, D.W. (2016). Spotlight on varietal thiols and precursors in grapes and wines. Australian Journal of Chemistry, 69(12), 1323-1330.
 
21.
Kritzinger, E.C., Bauer, F.F., Du Toit, W.J. (2013). Role of glutathione in winemaking: a review. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61(2), 269-277.
 
22.
Lavigne, V., Pons, A., Dubourdieu, D. (2007). Assay of glutathione in must and wines using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection: Changes in concentration in dry white wines during alcoholic fermentation and aging. Journal of Chromatography A, 1139(1), 130-135.
 
23.
Loira, I., Vejarano, R., Bañuelos, M.A., Morata, A., Tesfaye, W., Uthurry, C., Villa, A., Cintora, I., Suárez-Lepe, J.A. (2014). Influence of sequential fermentation with Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on wine quality. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 59(2, Part 1), 915-922.
 
24.
Lund, C.M., Thompson, M.K., Benkwitz, F., Wohler, M.W., Triggs, C.M., Gardner, R., Heymann, H., Nicolau, L. (2009). New Zealand Sauvignon blanc distinct flavor characteristics: Sensory, chemical, and consumer aspects. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 60(1), 1-12.
 
25.
Mattivi, F., Fedrizzi, B., Zenato, A., Tiefenthaler, P., Tempesta, S., Perenzoni, D., Cantarella, P., Simeoni, F., Vrhovsek, U. (2012). Development of reliable analytical tools for evaluating the influence of reductive winemaking on the quality of Lugana wines. Analytica Chimica Acta, 732, SI, 194-202.
 
26.
Monagas, M., Gómez-Cordovés, C., Bartolomé, B. (2007). Evaluation of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for red winemaking. Influence on the anthocyanin, pyranoanthocyanin and non-anthocyanin phenolic content and colour characteristics of wines. Food Chemistry, 104(2), 814-823.
 
27.
Nikolantonaki, M., Waterhouse, A.L. (2012). A method to quantify quinone reaction rates with wine relevant nucleophiles: A key to the understanding of oxidative loss of varietal thiols. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(34), 8484-8491.
 
28.
Olejar, K.J., Fedrizzi, B., Kilmartin, P.A. (2015). Influence of harvesting technique and maceration process on aroma and phenolic attributes of Sauvignon blanc wine. Food Chemistry, 183, 181-189.
 
29.
Peinado, R.A., Moreno, J., Bueno, J.E., Moreno, J.A., Mauricio, J.C. (2004). Comparative study of aromatic compounds in two young white wines subjected to pre-fermentative cryomaceration. Food Chemistry, 84(4), 585-590.
 
30.
Pena-Neira, A., Hernández, T., García-Vallejo, C., Estrella, I., Suarez, J.A. (2000). A survey of phenolic compounds in Spanish wines of different geographical origin. European Food Research and Technology, 210(6), 445-448.
 
31.
Petrozziello, M., Guaita, M., Motta, S., Panero, L., Bosso, A. (2011). Analytical and sensory characterization of the aroma of “Langhe DOC Nebbiolo” wines: Influence of the prefermentative cold maceration with dry ice. Journal of Food Science, 76(4), 525-534.
 
32.
Piano, F., Fracassetti, D., Buica, A., Stander, M., Du Toit, W.J., Borsa, D., Tirelli, A. (2015). Development of a novel liquid/liquid extraction and ultra‐performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the assessment of thiols in South African Sauvignon B lanc wines. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 21(1), 40-48.
 
33.
Renault, P., Coulon, J., de Revel, G., Barbe, J.-C., Bely, M. (2015). Increase of fruity aroma during mixed T. delbrueckii/S. cerevisiae wine fermentation is linked to specific esters enhancement. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 207, 40-48.
 
34.
Renault, P., Coulon, J., Moine, V., Thibon, C., Bely, M. (2016). Enhanced 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol production in sequential mixed fermentation with Torulaspora delbrueckii/Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals a situation of synergistic interaction between two industrial strains. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, art. no. 293.
 
35.
Ribéreau-Gayon, P., Dubourdieu, D., Donèche, B., Lonvaud, A. (2006). Varietal aroma. In Handbook of Enology, the Microbiology of Wine and Vvinifications. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, pp. 205-230.
 
36.
Roland, A., Schneider, R., Charrier, F., Cavelier, F., Rossignol, M., Razungles, A. (2011a). Distribution of varietal thiol precursors in the skin and the pulp of Melon B. and Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Food Chemistry, 125(1), 139-144.
 
37.
Roland, A., Schneider, R., Razungles, A., Cavelier, F. (2011b). Varietal thiols in wine: discovery, analysis and applications. Chemical Reviews, 111(11), 7355-7376.
 
38.
Roland, A., Vialaret, J., Razungles, A., Rigou, P., Schneider, R. (2010). Evolution of S-cysteinylated and S-glutathionylated thiol precursors during oxidation of Melon B. and Sauvignon blanc musts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(7), 4406-4413.
 
39.
Sadoudi, M., Tourdot-Maréchal, R., Rousseaux, S., Steyer, D., Gallardo-Chacón, J.-J., Ballester, J., Vichi, S., Guérin-Schneider, R., Caixach, J., Alexandre, H. (2012). Yeast–yeast interactions revealed by aromatic profile analysis of Sauvignon Blanc wine fermented by single or co-culture of non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces yeasts. Food Microbiology, 32(2), 243-253.
 
40.
Sonni, F., Clark, A.C., Prenzler, P.D., Riponi, C., Scollary, G.R. (2011). Antioxidant action of glutathione and the ascorbic acid/glutathione pair in a model white wine. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(8), 3940-3949.
 
41.
Sumby, K.M., Grbin, P.R., Jiranek, V. (2010). Microbial modulation of aromatic esters in wine: Current knowledge and future prospects. Food Chemistry, 121(1), 1-16.
 
42.
Swiegers, J.H., Bartowsky, E.J., Henschke, P.A., Pretorius, I.S. (2005). Yeast and bacterial modulation of wine aroma and flavour. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 11(2), 139-173.
 
43.
Šuklje, K., Baša Česnik, H., Janeš, L., Kmecl, V., Vanzo, A., Deloire, A., Sivilotti, P., Lisjak, K. (2013). The effect of leaf area to yield ratio on secondary metabolites in grapes and wines of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc. Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, 47(2), 83-97.
 
44.
Šuklje, K., Lisjak, K., Baša Česnik, H., Janeš, L., Du Toit, W., Coetzee, Z., Vanzo, A., Deloire, A. (2012). Classification of grape berries according to diameter and total soluble solids to study the effect of light and temperature on methoxypyrazine, glutathione, and hydroxycinnamate evolution during ripening of Sauvignon blanc (Vitis vinifera L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(37), 9454-9461.
 
45.
Thibon, C., Böcker, C., Shinkaruk, S., Moine, V., Darriet, P., Dubourdieu, D. (2016). Identification of S-3-(hexanal)-glutathione and its bisulfite adduct in grape juice from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc as new potential precursors of 3SH. Food Chemistry, 199, 711-719.
 
46.
Thibon, C., Dubourdieu, D., Darriet, P., Tominaga, T. (2009). Impact of noble rot on the aroma precursor of 3-sulfanylhexanol content in Vitis vinifera L. cv Sauvignon blanc and Semillon grape juice. Food Chemistry, 114(4), 1359-1364.
 
47.
Tomašević, M., Gracin, L., Ćurko, N., Kovačević Ganić, K. (2017). Impact of pre-fermentative maceration and yeast strain along with glutathione and SO2 additions on the aroma of Vitis vinifera L. Pošip wine and its evaluation during bottle aging. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 81, 67-76.
 
48.
Tominaga, T., Baltenweck-Guyot, R., Des Gachons, C.P., Dubourdieu, D. (2000). Contribution of volatile thiols to the aromas of white wines made from several Vitis vinifera grape varieties. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 51(2), 178-181.
 
49.
Tominaga, T., Murat, M.-L., Dubourdieu, D. (1998). Development of a method for analyzing the volatile thiols involved in the characteristic aroma of wines made from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sauvignon blanc. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(3), 1044-1048.
 
50.
Vanzo, A., Cecotti, R., Vrhovsek, U., Torres, A. M., Mattivi, F., Passamonti, S. (2007). The fate of trans-caftaric acid administered into the rat stomach. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55(4), 1604-1611.
 
51.
Vanzo, A., Janeš, L., Požgan, F., Velikonja Bolta, Š., Sivilotti, P., Lisjak, K. (2017). UHPLC-MS/MS determination of varietal thiol precursors in Sauvignon Blanc grapes. Scientific Reports, 7(1), art. no. 13122.
 
52.
Zott, K., Thibon, C., Bely, M., Lonvaud-Funel, A., Dubourdieu, D., Masneuf-Pomarede, I. (2011). The grape must non-Saccharomyces microbial community: Impact on volatile thiol release. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 151(2), 210-215.
 
ISSN:1230-0322