ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Effect of the Growth Stage of False Flax (Camelina sativa L.) on the Phenolic Compound Content and Antioxidant Potential of the Aerial Part of the Plant
Magdalena Karamać 1  
,  
Francesco Gai 2  
,  
 
 
More details
Hide details
1
Department of Chemical and Physical Properties of Food, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10 Str., 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Italian National Research Council, 10095 Grugliasco, Italy
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Francesco Gai   

Institute of Sciences of Food Production, Italian National Research Council, Italy
Online publication date: 2020-04-17
Publication date: 2020-04-17
Submission date: 2020-02-05
Final revision date: 2020-03-24
Acceptance date: 2020-03-26
 
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2020;70(2):189–198
KEYWORDS
TOPICS
ABSTRACT
The phenolic compound profile and antioxidant potential of the false flax (Camelina sativa L.) plant, harvested at five morphological stages, that is, from the vegetative to the ripe seed-pod stage, have been investigated. False flax extracts were prepared using 80% (v/v) methanol, and the total phenolic content (TPC), the contents of the individual phenolics and antioxidant activity, measured as the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), DPPH• scavenging activity and the ability to inhibit the oxidation of β-carotene-linoleic acid emulsion, were determined. The TPC of the plant, at different growth stages, ranged from 49.2 to 59.1 mg GAE/g of extract and from 1.46 to 3.10 mg GAE/g of fresh matter (FM). Four main phenolic compounds were identified (chlorogenic acid, rutin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and quercetin glycoside). The chlorogenic acid content and the sum of flavonoids increased in the extracts from the vegetative to the bud stage, reaching 35.9 and 49.5 mg/g of extract, respectively, and gradually decreased in the subsequent growth stages. The plant extracts at the bud and flowering stages generally had the highest antioxidant activity in the polar systems (TEAC, FRAP and DPPH assays). The ripe seed-pod stage showed the highest antioxidant potential in these conditions when the results were expressed on FM basis. The best antioxidant activity in the lipid emulsion system was shown for the false flax extracts at the flowering and ripe seed-pod stages. Our research has indicated the possibility of using the aerial part of C. sativa as a source of ingredients with protective antioxidant activity.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to express their thanks to the Italian National Research Council which, in the framework of a Short Term Mobility Program - 2019 (STM 2019), provided a visiting grant to Magdalena Karamać.
 
REFERENCES (35)
1.
Abramovič, H., Butinar, B., Nikolič, V. (2007). Changes occurring in phenolic content, tocopherol composition and oxidative stability of Camelina sativa oil during storage. Food Chemistry, 104(3), 903–909.
 
2.
Amyot, L., McDowell, T., Martin, S.L., Renaud, J., Gruber, M.Y., Hannoufa, A. (2019). Assessment of antinutritional compounds and chemotaxonomic relationships between Camelina sativa and its wild relatives. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 67(3), 796–806.
 
3.
Belayneh, H.D., Wehling, R.L., Reddy, A.K., Cahoon E.B., Ciftci, O.N. (2017). Ethanol‑modified supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of the bioactive lipid components of Camelina sativa seed. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 94(6), 855–865.
 
4.
Benzie, I.F.F., Strain, J.J. (1996). The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry, 239(1), 70–76.
 
5.
Berti, M., Gesch, R., Eynck, C., Anderson, J., Cermak, S. (2016). Camelina uses, genetics, genomics, production, and management. Industrial Crops and Products, 94, 690–710.
 
6.
Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E., Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free-radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 28(1), 25–30.
 
7.
Das, N., Berhow, M.A., Angelino, D., Jeffery, E.H. (2014). Camelina sativa defatted seed meal contains both alkyl sulfinyl glucosinolates and quercetin that synergize bioactivity. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 62(33), 8385−8391.
 
8.
Faure, J-D., Tepfer, M. (2016). Camelina, a Swiss knife for plant lipid biotechnology. OCL - Oilseeds and Fats, Crops and Lipids, 23(5), D503.
 
9.
Ferreres, F., Valentao, P., Llorach, R., Pinheiro, C., Cardoso, U., Pereira, J.A., Sousa, C., Seabra, R.M., Andrade, P.B. (2005). Phenolic compounds in external leaves of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. costata DC). Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 53(8), 2901–2907.
 
10.
Ferreres, F., Sousa, C., Vrchovska, V., Valentao, P., Pereira, J.A., Seabra, R.M., Andrade, P.B. (2006). Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of tronchuda cabbage internal leaves. European Food Research Technology, 222, 88–98.
 
11.
Gai, F., Peiretti, P.G., Karamać, M., Amarowicz, R. (2017). Changes in the total polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacities of perilla (Perilla frutescens L.) plant extracts during the growth cycle. Journal of Food Quality, 2017, art. no. 7214747.
 
12.
Karamać, M., Orak, H.H., Amarowicz, R., Orak, A., Piekoszewski, W. (2018). Phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of wild and cultivated white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds. Food Chemistry, 258, 1–7.
 
13.
Karamać, M., Gai, F., Longato, E., Meineri, G., Janiak, M., Amarowicz, R., Peiretti, P.G. (2019). Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) during plant growth. Antioxidants, 8(6), 173.
 
14.
Kirkhus, B., Lundon, A.R., Haugen, J.E., Vogt, G., Borge, G.I.A., Henriksen. B.I.F. (2013). Effects of environmental factors on edible oil quality of organically grown Camelina sativa. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 61(13), 3179−3185.
 
15.
Kosińska, A., Karamać, M., Penkacik, K., Urbalewicz, A., Amarowicz, R. (2011). Interactions between tannins and proteins isolated from broad bean seeds (Vicia faba Major) yield soluble and non-soluble complexes. European Food Research and Technology, 233(2), 213–222.
 
16.
Martinelli, T., Galasso, I. (2011). Phenological growth stages of Camelina sativa according to the extended BBCH scale. Annals of Applied Biology, 158(1), 87–94.
 
17.
Matthäus, B. (2002). Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from residues of different oilseeds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(12), 3444–3452.
 
18.
Matthäus, B., Zubr, J. (2000). Variability of specific components in Camelina sativa oilseed cakes. Industrial Crops and Products, 12(1), 9–18.
 
19.
Miller, H.E. (1971). A simplified method for the evaluation of antioxidants. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 48(2), 91.
 
20.
Onyilagha, J., Bala, A., Hallett, R., Gruber, M., Soroka, J., Westcott, N. (2003). Leaf flavonoids of the cruciferous species, Camelina sativa, Crambe spp., Thlaspi arvense and several other genera of the family Brassicaceae. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 31(11), 1309–1322.
 
21.
Pavlović, J., Mitić, S., Mitić, M., Kocić, G., Pavlović, A., Tošić, S. (2019). Variation in the phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant activity in different parts of hawthorn (Crataegus pentagyna Willd.) during harvest periods. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 69(4), 367–378.
 
22.
Peiretti, P.G., Meineri, G. (2007). Fatty acids, chemical composition and organic matter digestibility of seeds and vegetative parts of false flax (Camelina sativa L.) after different lengths of growth. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 133(3-4), 341–350.
 
23.
Peiretti, P.G., Karamać, M., Janiak, M., Longato, E., Meineri, G., Amarowicz, R., Gai, F. (2019). Phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) plant during growth cycle. Agronomy, 9(3), 153.
 
24.
Quezada, N., Cherian, G. (2012). Lipid characterization and antioxidant status of the seeds and meals of Camelina sativa and flax. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology, 114(8), 974–982.
 
25.
Rahman, M.J., de Camargo, A.C., Shahidi, F. (2018a). Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of defatted camelina and sophia seeds. Food Chemistry, 240, 917–925.
 
26.
Rahman, M.J., Ambigaipalan, P., Shahidi F. (2018b). Biological activities of camelina and Sophia seeds phenolics: Inhibition of LDL oxidation, DNA damage, and pancreatic lipase and α-glucosidase activities. Journal of Food Science, 83(1), 237–245.
 
27.
Re, R., Pellegrini, N., Proteggente, A., Pannala, A., Yang, M., Rice-Evans, C. (1999). Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 26(9-10), 1231–1237.
 
28.
Rice-Evans, C.A., Miller, N.J., Paganga, G. (1996). Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 20(7), 933–956.
 
29.
Shahidi, F., Chandrasekara, A. (2010). Hydroxycinnamates and their in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities. Phytochemistry Reviews, 9, 147–170.
 
30.
Salminen, H., Estévez, M., Kivikari, R., Heinonen, M. (2006). Inhibition of protein and lipid oxidation by rapeseed, camelina and soy meal in cooked pork meat patties. European Food Research and Technology, 223, 461–468.
 
31.
Salminen, H., Heinonen, M. (2008). Plant phenolics affect oxidation of tryptophan. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(16), 7472–7481.
 
32.
Terpinc, P., Polak, T., Ulrih, N.P., Abramovič, H. (2011). Effect of heat treatment of camelina (Camelina sativa) seeds on the antioxidant potential of their extracts. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(16), 8639–8645.
 
33.
Terpinc, P., Polak, T., Makuc, D., Ulrih, N.P., Abramovič, H. (2012a). The occurrence and characterisation of phenolic compounds in Camelina sativa seed, cake and oil. Food Chemistry, 131(2), 580–589.
 
34.
Terpinc, P., Čeh, B., Polak, T., Ulrih, N.P., Abramovič, H. (2012b). Studies of the correlation between antioxidant properties and the total phenolic content of different oil cake extracts. Industrial Crops and Products, 39, 210– 217.
 
35.
Zubr, J., Matthäus, B. (2002). Effects of growth conditions on fatty acids and tocopherols in Camelina sativa oil. Industrial Crops and Products, 15(2), 155–162.
 
ISSN:1230-0322