Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Different Groups of Phenolic Compounds from Grape Skin Pomaces: Modeling and Optimization
Natka Ćurko 1  
Karla Kelšin 1  
Davor Valinger 1  
Marina Tomašević 1  
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Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Natka Ćurko   

Department of Food Engineering, University of Zagreb, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, 10000, Zagreb, Croatia
Publish date: 2019-05-31
Submission date: 2019-03-07
Final revision date: 2019-04-23
Acceptance date: 2019-05-16
A microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was employed on grape skin pomaces to enable the extraction of different groups of phenolic compounds (total phenolics, tannins, flavonols, and hydroxycinnamic acids) and to obtain extracts with the highest antioxidant capacity (ORAC). The single-step extraction process was modeled and optimized by means of artificial neural network (ANN) and response surface methodology (RSM) coupled with full factorial design. Methanol concentration (20 to 100%, v/v), temperature (30 to 60°C) and duration (2 to 16 min) were MAE input parameters studied. Optimal parameters were further applied in multistep MAE cycles for the complete recovery of phenolic antioxidants. Results showed that methanol concentration was the most significant parameter influencing the extraction of all groups of phenolics and antioxidant capacity of extracts. Moreover, a significant effect of time and temperature was also noticed, except in the case of total hydroxycinnamic acids. The presented ANN model accurately predicted the effect of the three input parameters simultaneously on the output parameters (training R2=0.9957; test R2=0.9945; validation R2=0.9965). Optimal parameters showed that higher methanol concentrations and lower temperatures (100%, v/v; at 40°C) were more convenient for the extraction of flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids than for ORAC (78.1%, v/v; at 60°C) or total phenolics and tannins (62.7 and 65.3%, v/v; at 60°C). The number of MAE cycles was found to be a key factor for completing extraction of skin pomace phenolics and should always be considered prior to analytical determination.
This work was supported by means of the project "The application of innovative technologies in the isolation of bioactive compounds from organic waste in the wine production", co-financed by the European Union under the call RC.2.2.08: "Strengthening Capacities for Research, Development and Innovation" funded by the European Regional Development Fund, the Regional Competitiveness Operational Program 2007 - 2013.
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