Optimisation of Beetroot Juice Encapsulation by Freeze-Drying
More details
Hide details
Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bulevar cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Jelena J. Vulić   

Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Serbia
Submission date: 2019-08-27
Final revision date: 2019-12-06
Acceptance date: 2019-12-09
Online publication date: 2020-02-12
Publication date: 2020-02-12
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2020;70(1):25–34
Sensitivity of natural antioxidants could be improved using encapsulation technologies. In this study, encapsulation of beetroot juice (BJ) with soy proteins has been optimized in terms of the wall:core ratio, BJ dilution and mixing time of both components, maximizing DPPH radical scavenging activity (SA) and the encapsulation efficiency (EE) based on the total phenolics content. Multi response optimization has indicated that the optimal encapsulation is accomplished when soy protein is mixed with undiluted BJ at a wall:core ratio of 50 g/L for 9.8 min. Applying these conditions, the optimal encapsulate has been produced, where the contents of total phenolics, flavonoids and betalains were 150.71 mg GAE/100 g, 9.31 mg RE/100 g, and 521.28 mg/100 g, respectively, while EE and SA were in accordance with the values obtained by optimization, i.e. 92.48% and 1.01 mmol TE/100 g, respectively, confirming the validity of the optimization process. The resulting encapsulates have favorable physicochemical and functional characteristics and can be potentially applied as natural color additives.
This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Serbia under Grant no. TR31044.
Ahmed, M., Akter, M.S., Lee, J.C., Eun, J.B. (2010). Encapsulation by spray drying of bioactive components, physicochemical and morphological properties from purple sweet potato. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 43, 1307-1312.
Ampleatil, N.M., Miraje, S.Y., Patil, P.D., Sahoo, A.K., Mote, G.V. (2015). Natural color extraction from amaranth and beetroot: a review. Indian Journal of Applied Research, 5(5), 19-20.
Bazaria, B., Kumar, P. (2018). Optimization of spray drying parameters for beetroot juice powder using response surface methodology (RSM). Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 17(4), 408-415.
Bhusari, S.N., Muzaffar, K., Kumar, P. (2014). Effect of carrier agents on physical and microstructural properties of spray dried tamarind pulp powder. Powder Technology, 266, 354–364.
Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M.E., Berset, C. (1995). Use of free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 28(1), 25-30.
Ceballos, A.M., Giraldo, G.I., Orrego, C.E. (2012). Effect of freezing rate on quality parameters of freeze dried soursop fruit pulp. Journal of Food Engineering, 111(2), 360–365.
Chen, C., Chi, Y.J., Xu, W. (2012). Comparisons on the functional properties and antioxidant activity of spray-dried and freeze-dried egg white protein hydrolysate. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(6), 2342-2352.
Cheng, D.M., Kuhn, P., Poulev, A., Rojo, L.E., Lila, M.A., Raskin, I. (2012). In vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effects of aqueous cinnamon extract and cinnamon polyphenol-enhanced food matrix. Food Chemistry, 135(4), 2994–3002.
Chevallier, A. (1996). The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. A practical reference guide to over 550 key herbs and their medicinal uses, DK Publishing Inc., New York, USA, p. 336.
Delgado-Vargas, F., Jimenez, A.R., Paredes-Lopez, O. (2000). Natural pigments: carotenoids, anthocyanins, and betalains – characteristics, biosynthesis, processing, and stability. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 40(3), 173–289.
de Vos, P., Faas, M.M., Spasojevic, M., Sikkema, J. (2010). Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components. International Dairy Journal, 20(4), SI, 292-302.
do Carmo, E.L., Teodoro, R.A.R., Félix, P.H.C., Fernandes, R.V.B., de Oliveira, É.R., Veiga, T.R.L.A., Borges, S.V., Botrel, D.A. (2018). Stability of spray-dried beetroot extract using oligosaccharides and whey proteins. Food Chemistry, 249, 51–59.
Ezhilarasi, P.N., Indrani, D., Jena, B.S., Anandharamakrishnan, C. (2013). Freeze drying technique for microencapsulation of Garcinia fruit extract and its effect on bread quality. Journal of Food Engineering, 117(4), 513–520.
Franzen, K.L., Kinsella, J.E. (1976). Functional properties of succinylated and acetylated soy protein. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 24(4), 788-795.
Gandía-Herrero, F., Cabanes, J., Escribano, J., García-Carmona, F., Jiménez-Atiénzar, M. (2013). Encapsulation of the most potent antioxidant betalains in edible matrixes as powders of different colors. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61(18), 4294–4302.
Georgiev, V.G., Weber, J., Kneschke, E.M., Denev, P.N., Bley, T., Pavlov, A.I. (2010). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of betalain extracts from intact plants and hairy root cultures of the red beetroot Beta vulgaris cv. Detroit dark red. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 65(2), 105–111.
González-Molina, E., Moreno, D.A., García-Viguera, C. (2008). Genotype and harvest time influence the phytochemical quality of Fino lemon juice (Citrus limon (L.) Burm. F.) for industrial use. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(5), 1669–1675.
Herbach, K.M., Stintzing, F.C., Carle, R. (2006). Betalain stability and degradation –Structural and chromatic aspects. Journal of Food Science, 71(4), R41–R50.
Jafari, S.M., Mahdavi-Khazaei, K., Hemmati-Kakhki, A. (2016). Microencapsulation of saffron petal anthocyanins with cress seed gum compared with Arabic gum through freeze drying. Carbohydrate Polymers, 140, 20–25.
Janiszewska, E. (2014). Microencapsulated beetroot juice as a potential source of betalain. Powder Technology, 264, 190–196.
Jayasundera, M., Adhikari, B., Aldred, P., Ghandi, A. (2009). Surface modification of spray dried food and emulsion powders with surface-active proteins: A review. Journal of Food Engineering, 93(3), 266–277.
Krajka-Kuzniak, V., Szaefer, H., Ignatowicz, E., Adamska, T., Baer-Dubowska, W. (2012). Beetroot juice protects against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver injury in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 50(6), 2027–2033.
Kuck, L.S., Noreňa, C.P.Z. (2016). Microencapsulation of grape (Vitis labrusca var. Bordo) skin phenolic extract using gum Arabic, polydextrose, and partially hydrolyzed guar gum as encapsulating agents. Food Chemistry, 194, 569-576.
Kujala, T.S., Loponen, J.M., Klika, K.D., Pihlaja, K. (2000). Phenolics and betacyanins in red beetroot (Beta vulgaris) root: distribution and effect of cold storage on the content of total phenolics and three individual compounds. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 48(11), 5338–5342.
Kujala, T.S., Vienola, M.S., Klika, K.D., Loponen, J.M., Pihlaja, K. (2002). Betalain and phenolic compositions of four beetroot (Beta vulgaris) cultivars. European Food Research and Technology, 214(6), 505–510.
López-Varela, S., Gonzalez-Gross, M., Marcos, A. (2002). Functional foods and the immune system: A review. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56(S3), S29-33.
Maltais, A., Remondetto, G.E., Subirade, M. (2009). Soy protein cold-set hydrogels as controlled delivery devices for nutraceutical compounds. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(7), 1647–1653.
Maltais, A., Remondetto, G.E., Subirade, M. (2010). Tabletted soy protein cold-set hydrogels as carriers of nutraceutical substances. Food Hydrocolloids, 24(5), 518–524.
Man, Y.B.C., Irwandi, J., Abdullah, W.J.W. (1999). Effect of different types of maltodextrin and drying methods on physico-chemical and sensory properties of encapsulated durian flavour. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 79(8), 1075-1080.
Markham, K.R. (1989). Flavones, Flavonols and their Glycosides. In J.B. Harborne & P.M. Dey (Eds.), Methods in Plant Biochemistry. Academic Press, London, UK, pp. 197-235.
McCord, J.M. (2000). The evolution of free radicals and oxidative stress. American Journal of Medicine, 108(8), 652-659.
Medina-Torres, L., García-Cruz, E.E., Calderas, F., Laredo, R.F.G., Sánchez-Olivares, G., Gallegos-Infante, J.A., Rocha-Guzman, N.E., Rodriguez-Ramírez, J. (2013). Microencapsulation by spray drying of gallic acid with nopal mucilage (Opuntia ficus indica). LWT - Food Science and Technology, 50(2), 642–650.
Nedovic, V., Kalusevic, A., Manojlovic, V., Levic, S., Bugarski, B. (2011). An overview of encapsulation technologies for food applications. Procedia Food Science, 1, 1806–1815.
Otálora, M.C., Carriazo, J.G., Iturriaga, L., Nazareno, M.A., Osorio, C. (2015). Microencapsulation of betalains obtained from cactus fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica) by spray drying using cactus cladode mucilage and maltodextrin as encapsulating agents. Food Chemistry, 187, 174–181.
Oyaizu, M. (1986). Studies on product of browning reaction from glucose amine. Japanese Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics, 44(6), 307–315.
Pitalua, E., Jimenez, M., Vernon-Carter, E.J., Beristain, C.I. (2010). Antioxidative activity of microcapsules with beetroot juice using gum Arabic as wall material. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 88(C2-3), 253–258.
Poljsak, B., Šuput, D., Milisav, I. (2013). Achieving the balance between ROS and antioxidants: When to use the synthetic antioxidants. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, 2013, art. no. 956792.
Ramírez, M.J., Giraldo, G.I., Orrego, C.E. (2015). Modelling and stability of polyphenol in spray-dried and freeze-dried fruit encapsulates. Powder Technology, 277, 89–96.
Ravichandran, K., Saw, N. M.M.T., Mohdaly, A.A.A., Gabr, A.M.M., Kastell, A., Riedel, H., Cai, Z.Z., Knorr, D., Smetanska, I. (2013). Impact of processing of red beet on betalain content and antioxidant activity. Food Research International, 50(2), SI, 670–675.
Robert, P., Gorena, T., Romero, N., Sepulveda, E., Chavez, J., Sáenz, C. (2010). Encapsulation of polyphenols and anthocyanins from pomegranate (Punica granatum) by spray drying. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45(7), 1386–1394.
Rocha-Parra, D.F., Lanari, M.C., Zamora, M.C., Chirife, J. (2016). Influence of storage conditions on phenolic compounds stability, antioxidant capacity and colour of freeze-dried encapsulated red wine. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 70, 162-170.
Roopchand, D.E., Krueger, C.G., Moskal, K., Fridlender, B., Lila, M.A., Raskin, I. (2013). Food-compatible method for the efficient extraction and stabilization of cranberry pomace polyphenols. Food Chemistry, 141(4), 3664–3669.
Rouanet, J.M., Decorde, K., Del Rio, D., Auger, C., Borges, G., Cristol, J.-P., Lean, M.E.J., Crozier, A. (2010). Berry juices, teas, antioxidants and the prevention of atherosclerosis in hamsters. Food Chemistry, 118(2), 266-271.
Şahin Nadeem, H., Torun, M., Özdemir, F. (2011). Spray drying of the mountain tea (Sideritis stricta) water extract by using different hydrocolloid carriers. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44(7), 1626–1635.
Saikia, S., Mahnot, N.K., Mahanta, C.L. (2015). Optimisation of phenolic extraction from Averrhoa carambola pomace by response surface methodology and its microencapsulation by spray and freeze drying. Food Chemistry, 171, 144–152.
Shahidi, F., Han, X.Q. (1993). Encapsulation of food ingredients. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 33(6), 501–547.
Sinija, V.R., Mishra, H.N., Bal, S. (2007). Process technology for production of soluble tea powder. Journal of Food Engineering, 82(3), 276–283.
Tonon, R.V., Brabet, C., Hubinger, M.D. (2010). Anthocyanin stability and antioxidant activity of spray-dried açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) juice produced with different carrier agents. Food Research International, 43(3), 907-914.
Tumbas Šaponjac, V., Ćetković, G., Čanadanović-Brunet, J., Pajin, B., Djilas, S., Petrović, J., Lončarević, I., Stajčić, S., Vulić, J. (2016). Sour cherry pomace extract encapsulated in whey and soy proteins: Incorporation in cookies. Food Chemistry, 207, 27–33.
Valko, M., Leibfritz, D., Moncol, J., Cronin, M. T.D., Mazur, M., Telser, J. (2007). Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions and human disease. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 39(1), 44–84.
Vergara, C., Saavedra, J., Sáenz, C., García, P., Robert, P. (2014). Microencapsulation of pulp and ultrafiltered cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) extracts and betanin stability during storage. Food Chemistry, 157, 246–251.
Von Elbe, J.H. (2003). Betalains. In R.E. Wrolstad, T.E. Acree, E.A. Decker, M.H. Penner, D.S., Reid, S.J. Schwartz, C.F. Shoemaker, D.M. Smith, P. Sporns (Eds.), Handbook of Food Analytical Chemistry. Pigments, Colorants, Flavors, Texture, and Bioactive Food Components. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, USA, pp. 123-131.
Wootton-Beard, P.C., Ryan, L. (2011). A beetroot juice shot is a significant and convenient source of bioaccessible antioxidants. Journal of Functional Foods, 3(4), 329-334.
Wruss, J., Waldenberger, G., Huemer, S., Uygun, P., Lanzerstorfer, P., Müller, U., Höglinger, O., Weghuber, J. (2015). Compositional characteristics of commercial beetroot products and beetroot juice prepared from seven beetroot varieties grown in Upper Austria. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 42, 46-55.
Zielinska-Przyjemska, M., Olejnik, A., Dobrowolska-Zachwieja, A., Grajek, W. (2009). In vitro effects of beetroot juice and chips on oxidative metabolism and apoptosis in neutrophils from obese individuals. Phytotherapy Research, 23(1), 49–55.
Thematic Issue on “Red Beetroot as a Source of Nutrients, Bioactive Compounds and Pigments”
Wiesław Wiczkowski
Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Optimization and kinetic modelling of microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic contents and antioxidants from Turkish artichoke
Seda Kayahan, Didem Saloglu
CyTA - Journal of Food
Red Beetroot Betalains: Perspectives on Extraction, Processing, and Potential Health Benefits
Yu Fu, Jia Shi, Si-Yi Xie, Ting-Yi Zhang, Olugbenga Soladoye, Rotimi Aluko
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry