Search for Author, Title, Keyword
Purification and Characterization of a Low Molecular Weight Neutral Non-Starch Polysaccharide from Panax ginseng by Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Ying Ying 1,2
More details
Hide details
Institute of Grassland Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia, 010010, P.R. China
Beijing Key Laboratory of Forest Food Processing and Safety, College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, P.R. China
Submission date: 2022-10-19
Acceptance date: 2023-02-01
Online publication date: 2023-02-21
Publication date: 2023-02-21
Corresponding author
Hongxin Wu   

Institute of Grassland Research, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Science, Huhhot, Inner Mongolia, 010010, P.R. China
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2023;73(1):70-79
In this study, a novel neutral non-starch polysaccharide (GP1A) was extracted using hot water from ginseng roots. Chemical characteristics, monosaccharide compositions and structure of GP1A were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, gel permeation chromatography, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gas chromatography with mass spectrometer, one-dimensional and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance. The results indicated that the lyophilized GP1A was a homogeneous polysaccharide with a low molecular weight of 1.03 kDa. The dominating monosaccharides of GP1A were D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose, D-xylose and D-arabinose. The structure analysis indicated the main chain residues sequence of GP1A was α-D-Glcp-(6→3)-α-D-Galp-(1→1)-α-D-Glcp-(3→4)-β-D-Manp-(2→2)-β-D-Arap with branch chains of α-D-Glcp substituted at α-D-Galp and β-D-Xylp substituted at β-D-Manp.
This work was financially supported by the Central Public-interest Scientific Institution Basal Research Fund (NO. 1610332022004).
The authors have no competing interests.
Attele, A.S., Wu, J.A., Yuan, C.-S. (1999). Ginseng pharmacology: Multiple constituents and multiple actions. Biochemical Pharmacology, 58(11), 1658–1693.
Compton, S.J., Jones, C.G. (1985). Mechanism of dye response and interference in the Bradford protein assay. Analytical Biochemistry, 151(2), 369–374.
DuBois, M., Gilles, K., Hamilton, J.K., Smith, F. (1951). A colorimetric method for the determination of sugars. Nature, 168, art. no. 167.
DuBois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers, P.A., Smith, F. (1956). Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry, 28(3), 350–356.
Fan, Y., He, X., Zhou, S., Luo, A., He, T., Chun, Z. (2009). Composition analysis and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Dendrobium denneanum. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 45(2), 169–173.
Guo, Q., Cui, S.W., Kang, J., Ding, H., Wang, Q., Wang, C. (2015). Non-starch polysaccharides from American ginseng: physicochemical investigation and structural characterization. Food Hydrocolloids, 44, 320–327.
He, P.-F., He, L., Zhang, A.-Q., Wang, X.-L., Qu, L., Sun, P.-L. (2017). Structure and chain conformation of a neutral polysaccharide from sclerotia of Polyporus umbellatus. Carbohydrate Polymers, 155, 61–67.
Huang, J., Liu, D., Wang, Y., Liu, L., Li, J., Yuan, J., Jiang, Z., Jiang, Z., Hsiao, W.L.W., Liu, H., Khan, I., Xie, Y., Wu, J., Xie, Y., Zhang, Y., Fu, Y., Liao, J., Wang, W., Lai, H., Shi, A., Cai, J., Luo, L., Li, R., Yao, X., Fan, X., Wu, Q., Liu, Z., Yan, P., Lu, J., Yang, M., Wang, L., Cao, Y., Wei, H., Leung, E.L.-H. (2021). Ginseng polysaccharides alter the gut microbiota and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, potentiating the antitumour effect of antiprogrammed cell death 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (anti-PD-1/PD-L1) immunotherapy. Gut, 71, 734–745.
Jeddou, K.B., Chaari, F., Maktouf, S., Nouri-Ellouz, O., Helbert, C.B., Ghorbel, R.E. (2016). Structural, functional, and antioxidant properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from potatoes peels. Food Chemistry, 205, 97–105.
Kang, Q., Chen, S., Li, S., Wang, B., Liu, X., Hao, L., Lu, J. (2019). Comparison on characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Ganoderma lucidum by ultrasound and conventional extraction. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 124, 1137–1144.
Li, C., Cai, J., Geng, J., Li, Y., Wang, Z., Li, R. (2012). Purification, characterization and anticancer activity of a polysaccharide from Panax ginseng. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 51(5), 968–973.
Li, J., Li, R., Li, N., Zheng, F., Dai, Y., Ge, Y., Yue, H., Yu, S. (2018). Mechanism of antidiabetic and synergistic effects of ginseng polysaccharide and ginsenoside Rb1 on diabetic rat model. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 158, 451–460.
Li, Q., Xie, Y., Su, J., Ye, Q., Jia, Z. (2012). Isolation and structural characterization of a neutral polysaccharide from the stems of Dendrobium densiflorum. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 50(5), 1207–1211.
Luo, A., He, X., Zhou, S., Fan, Y., Luo, A., Chun, Z. (2010). Purification, composition analysis and antioxidant activity of the polysaccharides from Dendrobium nobile Lindl. Carbohydrate Polymers, 79(4), 1014–1019.
Luo, D., Fang, B. (2008). Structural identification of ginseng polysaccharides and testing of their antioxidant activities. Carbohydrate Polymers, 72(3), 376–381.
Mazeau, K., Rinaudo, M. (2004). The prediction of the characteristics of some polysaccharides from molecular modeling. Comparison with effective behavior. Food Hydrocolloids, 18(6), 885–898.
McGrance, S.J., Cornell, H.J., Rix, C.J. (1998). A simple and rapid colorimetric method for the determination of amylose in starch products. Starch/Stärke, 50(4), 158–163.<158::AID-STAR158>3.0.CO;2-7.
Meng, M., Cheng, D., Han, L., Chen, Y., Wang, C. (2017). Isolation, purification, structural analysis and immunostimulatory activity of water-soluble polysaccharides from Grifola Frondosa fruiting body. Carbohydrate Polymers, 157, 1134–1143.
Mokni Ghribi, A., Sila, A., Maklouf Gafsi, I., Blecker, C., Danthine, S., Attia, H., Bougatef, A., Besbes, S. (2015). Structural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-soluble polysaccharides from chickpea flours. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 75, 276–282.
Park, S., Baker, J.O., Himmel, M.E., Parilla, P.A., Johnson, D.K. (2010). Cellulose crystallinity index: measurement techniques and their impact on interpreting cellulase performance. Biotechnology for Biofuels, 3(1), art. no. 10.
Romdhane, M.B., Haddar, A., Ghazala, I., Jeddou, K.B., Helbert, C.B., Ellouz-Chaabouni, S. (2017). Optimization of polysaccharides extraction from watermelon rinds: Structure, functional and biological activities. Food Chemistry, 216, 355–364.
Ruiz-Matute, A.I., Hernández-Hernández, O., Rodríguez-Sánchez, S., Sanz, M.L., Martínez-Castro, I. (2011). Derivatization of carbohydrates for GC and GC-MS analyses. Journal of Chromatography B, 879(17–18), 1226–1240.
Shi, L. (2016). Bioactivities, isolation and purification methods of polysaccharides from natural products: A review. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 92, 37–48.
Sun, L., Wu, D., Ning, X., Yang, G., Lin, Z., Tian, M., Zhou, Y. (2015). α-Amylase-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Panax ginseng. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 75, 152–157.
Wang, J., Li, S., Fan, Y., Chen, Y., Liu, D., Cheng, H., Gao, X., Zhou, Y. (2010). Anti-fatigue activity of the water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 130(2), 421–423.
Wang, K., Zhang, H., Han, Q., Lan, J., Chen, G., Cao, G., Yang, C. (2020). Effects of astragalus and ginseng polysaccharides on growth performance, immune function and intestinal barrier in weaned piglets challenged with lipopolysaccharide. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 104(4), 1096–1105.
Wang, L., Liu, H.-M., Qin, G.-Y. (2017). Structure characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Chinese quince seed meal. Food Chemistry, 234, 314–322.
Wang, L., Yu, X., Yang, X., Li, Y., Yao, Y., Lui, E.M.K., Ren, G. (2015). Structural and anti-inflammatory characterization of a novel neutral polysaccharide from North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius). International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 74, 12–17.
Wang, R., Chen, P., Jia, F., Tang, J., Ma, F. (2012). Optimization of polysaccharides from Panax japonicus C.A. Meyer by RSM and its anti-oxidant activity. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 50(2), 331–336.
Wang, W., Li, X., Bao, X., Gao, L., Tao, Y. (2018). Extraction of polysaccharides from black mulberry fruit and their effect on enhancing antioxidant activity. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 120(Part B), 1420–1429.
Wang, W., Tan, J., Nima, L., Sang, Y., Cai, X., Xue, H. (2022). Polysaccharides from fungi: A review on their extraction, purification, structural features, and biological activities. Food Chemistry: X, 15, art. no. 100414.
Yao, H.-Y.-Y., Wang, J.-Q., Yin, J.-Y., Nie, S.-P., Xie, M.-Y. (2021). A review of NMR analysis in polysaccharide structure and conformation: Progress, challenge and perspective. Food Research International, 143, art. no. 110290.
Yu, X.-H., Liu, Y., Wu, X.-L., Liu, L.-Z., Fu, W., Song, D.-D. (2017). Isolation, purification, characterization and immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharides derived from American ginseng. Carbohydrate Polymers, 156, 9–18.
Zhang, X., Li, S., Sun, L., Ji, L., Zhu, J., Fan, Y., Tai, G., Zhou, Y. (2012). Further analysis of the structure and immunological activity of an RG-I type pectin from Panax ginseng. Carbohydrate Polymers, 89(2), 519–525.
Zhang, X., Yu, L., Bi, H., Li, X., Ni, W., Han, H., Li, N., Wang, B., Zhou, Y., Tai, G. (2009). Total fractionation and characterization of the water-soluble polysaccharides isolated from Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer. Carbohydrate Polymers, 77(3), 544–552.
Zhao, G., Kan, J., Li, Z., Chen, Z. (2005). Structural features and immunological activity of a polysaccharide from Dioscorea opposita Thunb roots. Carbohydrate Polymers, 61(2), 125–131.
Zheng, Y.-F., Zhang, Q., Liu, X.-M., Ma, L., Lai, F. (2016). Extraction of polysaccharides and its antitumor activity on Magnolia kwangsiensis Figlar & Noot. Carbohydrate Polymers, 142, 98–104.
Zhou, H., Yan, Y., Zhang, X., Zhao, T., Xu, J., Han, R. (2020). Ginseng polysaccharide inhibits MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation by activating the inflammatory response. Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 20(6), art. no. 229.
Pharmacological Effects of Ginseng: Multiple Constituents and Multiple Actions on Humans
Guolin Zhou, Chong-Zhi Wang, Somayeh Mohammadi, Wamtinga Sawadogo, Qinge Ma, Chun-Su Yuan
The American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Structures, physical properties and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum exopolysaccharide
Wenjing Zang, Huiying Cao, Jingping Ge, Dan Zhao
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Journals System - logo
Scroll to top