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Composition and Significance of Bacterial Microbiota and Volatile Organic Compounds of Swiss-Dutch-Type Cheese as Determined by PCR-DGGE and HS-GC
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Department of Industrial and Food Microbiology, Faculty of Food Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Pl. Cieszyński 1, 10-726 Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Immunology and Food Microbiology, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
Department of Dairy Science and Quality Management, Faculty of Food Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 7, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Submission date: 2019-02-13
Final revision date: 2019-05-15
Acceptance date: 2019-06-06
Online publication date: 2019-06-28
Publication date: 2019-08-22
Corresponding author
Beata Nalepa   

Department of Industrial and Food Microbiology, Faculty of Food Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Pl. Cieszyński 1, 10-726, Olsztyn, Poland
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2019;69(3):267-278
This study aimed to determine seasonal differences in the composition of bacterial microbiota and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in Swiss-Dutch-type cheese (manufactured between 2012 and 2014). Bacterial diversity and VOCs (acetaldehyde; ketones: acetone, diacetyl, acetoin; alcohols: methanol, ethanol; esters: ethyl acetate, ethyl propionate, ethyl butyrate; fatty acids: acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid, valeric acid, isocaproic acid, caproic acid, heptanoic acid) were determined by polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE), and headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC), respectively. Season influenced the composition of both bacterial microbiota and VOCs in cheese. Counts of starter bacteria (Lactococcus, Leuconostoc and Propionibacterium – 6.51-7.14, 3.6-3.96 and 2.88-4.72 log CFU/g, respectively) were higher in the first year of the study, likewise these of the non-starter Lactobacillus (4.12-5.69 log CFU/g). The total VOC content was substantially lower in the summer-autumn 2012 (0.73228-3.34111 mg/g) than in the other seasons (63.28810-131.27690 mg/g). Differences in bacterial microbiota and the VOC profiles were observed between cheeses manufactured in winter-spring and summer-autumn seasons. Winter- and spring-manufactured cheeses were also characterized by a lower number of bacterial species (average 8.7-10.5 species/sample) than the cheeses produced in the summer and in the autumn (average 10-13 species/sample). The results of the study indicate that the cheese-making process has to be continuously monitored to minimize differences across manufacturing seasons.
We are grateful to Dr. Marta Mikš for calibration of the gas chromatograph for quantitative identification volatile compounds of microbiological origin in samples of milk and ripened chees.
This study was supported by the National Science Center, Poland (grant no. N N312 484140) and by University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (17.610.015-300).
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