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Betaxanthin Profiling in Beta vulgaris Leaves and Gymnocalycium mihanovichii Grafted Cacti: A Comprehensive Study
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Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Analysis, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155 Kraków, Poland
Submission date: 2023-09-12
Acceptance date: 2023-11-09
Online publication date: 2023-12-05
Publication date: 2023-12-05
Corresponding author
Aneta Spórna-Kucab   

Department of Chemical Technology and Environmental Analysis,, Cracow University of Technology, Warszawska 24, 31-155, Kraków, Poland
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2023;73(4):375-384
This study was focused on the identification and quantification of betaxanthins using high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector coupled to electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS) in leaves of various cultivars of Beta vulgaris (beet) and Gymnocalycium mihanovichii grafted cacti. In G. mihanovichii grafted cacti, four betaxanthins, namely histidine-Bx, histamine-Bx, serine-Bx, and proline-Bx, were tentatively identified in the yellow, orange, pink, and red varieties, with contents ranging from 0.09 to 1.55 mg/kg fresh weight (FW). Betaxanthins were not detected in the green cactus. Histidine-Bx was the prevailing betaxanthin compound in the majority of cultivars. Fifteen betaxanthins were successfully identified in the leaves of five B. vulgaris cultivars (cv.): Snow Ball, Boldor, Cylindra, Rhubarb, and Round Dark Red. Leaves of yellow beet (cv. Boldor) had the highest total betaxanthin content (20.4 mg/kg FW), while white beet (cv. Snow Ball) had the lowest one (3.43 mg/kg FW). The leaves of red cultivars had comparable betaxanthin contents, ranging from 13.4 to 18.8 mg/kg FW, similary to the yellow cultivar, indicating their potential as valuable sources of betaxanthins. There was no single dominant betaxanthin in B. vulgaris leaves. The leaves of B. vulgaris were found to be a richer source of betaxanthin than the grafted cactus G. mihanovichii, which opens up new prospects for research into the potential utilization of these compounds in the industry.
This research was financed by the Polish National Science Centre for years 2019-2020; Project No. 2019/03/X/ST4/00968.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
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