Effect of Core Temperature on the Oxidation of Lipids and Proteins During Steam Cooking of Large-Mouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides)
Keyu Wang 1, 2  
,   Yulong Bao 1  
,   Hongxu Yang 1,   Yong Wang 3,   Dongpo Chen 3,   Joe M. Regenstein 4,   Peng Zhou 1
More details
Hide details
State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, China
School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, China
Food Research and Development, Hangzhou Robam Appliances Co., Ltd., China
Department of Food Science, Cornell University, American Samoa
Yulong Bao   

State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, China
Submission date: 2020-05-06
Final revision date: 2020-07-03
Acceptance date: 2020-07-29
Online publication date: 2020-07-30
Publication date: 2020-08-25
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2020;70(3):301–312
Steam cooking is a popular way of preparing fish and the end temperature plays a key role in the quality of the cooked fish. In this study, the lipid and protein oxidation, and the related changes in volatile compounds and in vitro digestibility of large-mouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) steam cooked to a core temperature of 45℃, 55℃, 65℃, 75℃, and 85℃ were investigated. Steaming caused a significant increase in the peroxide value (PV) and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, accompanied by the decreased proportion of unsaturated fatty acids like oleic acid and linoleic acid, which was related to the lipid oxidation and the increase in volatile aldehydes as indicated by the partial least squares analysis. The protein oxidation can be reflected by the significant decrease of total thiol groups, combined with the aggregation as shown in SDS-PAGE and the increase in particle size at pre-digestive phase. And the aggregation of proteins further caused the decreased digestibility of fish meat at the gastric phase, especially when the core temperature was above 75℃. Furthermore, steaming significantly decreased the aerobic count, and no coliform or generic E. coli was detected in steamed samples. Thus the core temperature of 65-75℃ was recommended for the consideration of food oxidation and microbial safety.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the subsidization from the Natural Science Foundation of China (31901758), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (BK20190591), and by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (2019M651707). This work was also supported by 111 Project (BP0719028), and the National First-class Discipline Program of Food Science & Technology (JURSTR20180201).
Bastías, J.M., Balladares, P., Acuña, S., Quevedo, R., Muñoz, O. (2017). Determining the effect of different cooking methods on the nutritional composition of salmon (Salmo salar) and chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) fillets. PLoS ONE, 12(7), art. no. e0180993.
Bax, M.L., Aubry, L., Ferreira, C., Daudin, J.D., Gatellier, P., Rémond, D., Santé-Lhoutellier, V. (2012). Cooking temperature is a key determinant of in vitro meat protein digestion rate: Investigation of underlying mechanisms. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 60(10), 2569–2576.
Benjakul, S., Seymour, T.A., Morrissey, M.T., An, H.J. (1997). Physicochemical changes in Pacific whiting muscle proteins during iced storage. Journal of Food Science, 62(4), 729–733.
Berlett, B.S., Stadtman, E.R. (1997). Protein oxidation in aging, disease, and oxidative stress. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 272(33), 20313–20316.
Chaiyasit, W., Elias, R.J., McClements, D.J., Decker, E.A. (2007). Role of physical structures in bulk oils on lipid oxidation. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 47(3), 299–317.
Dong, X., Fu, H., Feng, D., He, B., Jiang, D., Qin, L., Qi, H. (2018). Oxidative stress-induced textural and biochemical changes of scallop Patinopecten yessoensis adductor muscle under heat treatment. International Journal of Food Properties, 21(1), 1054–1066.
Estévez, M., Luna, C. (2017). Dietary protein oxidation: A silent threat to human health? Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 57(17), 3781–3793.
Flaskerud, K., Bukowski, M., Golovko, M., Johnson, L., Brose, S., Ali, A., Cleveland, B., Picklo, M.Sr., Raatz, S. (2017). Effects of cooking techniques on fatty acid and oxylipin content of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Food Science & Nutrition, 5(6), 1195–1204.
Ganhão, R., Estévez, M., Morcuende, D. (2011). Suitability of the TBA method for assessing lipid oxidation in a meat system with added phenolic-rich materials. Food Chemistry, 126(2), 772–778.
Guyon, C., Meynier, A., Lamballerie, M.D. (2016). Protein and lipid oxidation in meat: A review with emphasis on high-pressure treatments. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 50, 131–143.
Hu, L., Ren, S., Shen, Q., Chen, J., Ye, X., Ling, J. (2017). Proteomic study of the effect of different cooking methods on protein oxidation in fish fillets. RSC Advances, 7(44), 27496–27505.
Hu, L., Ren, S., Shen, Q., Ye, X., Chen, J., Ling, J. (2018). Protein oxidation and proteolysis during roasting and in vitro digestion of fish (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(14), 5344-5351.
Kjærsgård, V.H., Nørrelykke, M.R., Baron, C.P., Jessen, F. (2006). Identification of carbonylated protein in frozen rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets and development of protein oxidation during frozen storage. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54(25), 9437–9446.
Korzeniowska, M., Cheung, I.W.Y., Li-Chan, E.C.Y. (2013). Effects of fish protein hydrolysate and freeze-thaw treatment on physicochemical and gel properties of natural actomyosin from Pacific cod. Food Chemistry, 138(2-3), 1967–1975.
Li, C., Wang, D., Xu, W., Gao, F., Zhou, G. (2013). Effect of final cooked temperature on tenderness, protein solubility and microstructure of duck breast muscle. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 51(1), 266–274.
Lorenzo, J.M., Domínguez, R. (2014). Cooking losses, lipid oxidation and formation of volatile compounds in foal meat as affected by cooking procedure. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 29(4), 240–248.
Lund, M.N., Heinonen, M., Baron, C.P., Estévez, M. (2011). Protein oxidation in muscle foods: A review. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 55(1), 83–95.
Maulvault, A.L., Anacleto, P., Machado, R., Amaral, A., Carvalho, M.L., Lourenço, H.M., Nunes, M.L., Marques, A. (2012). Effect of sex, maturation stage and cooking methods on the nutritional quality and safety of black scabbard fish (Aphanopus carbo Lowe, 1839). Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 92(7), 1545–1553.
Mi, H., Guo, X., Li, J. (2016). Effect of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on the lipid oxidation in red drum fillets during refrigerated storage. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 74, 70–76.
Microbiological Guidelines (2007). Microbiological guidelines for ready-to-eat food. Retrieved from [https://www.cfs.gov.hk/english...].
Minekus, M., Alminger, M., Alvito, P., Ballance, Bohn, T., Bourlieu, C., Carrière, F., Boutrou, R., Corredig, M., Dupont, D., Dufour, C., Egger, L., Golding, M., Karakaya, S., Kirkhus, B., Le Feunteun, S., Lesmes, U., Macierzanka, A., Mackie, A., Marze, S., McClements, D.J., Ménard, O., Recio I., Santos, C.N., Singh, R.P., Vegarud, G.E., Wickham, M.S.J., Weitschies, W., Brodkorb, A. (2014). A standardised static in vitro digestion method suitable for food - an international consensus. Food & Function, 5(6), 1113–1124.
Schaich, K.M., Shahidi, F., Zhong, Y., Eskin, N.A.M. (2013). Lipid oxidation. In Biochemistry of Foods. 3rd edition, Elsevier, London, UK, pp. 419–478.
Shi, C., Guo, H., Wu, T., Tao, N., Wang, X., Zhong, J. (2019). Effect of three types of thermal processing methods on the lipidomics profile of tilapia fillets by UPLC-Q-Extractive Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Food Chemistry, 298, art. no. e125029.
Silva, F.A.P., Ferreira, V.C.S., Madruga, M.S., Estévez, M. (2016). Effect of the cooking method (grilling, roasting, frying and sous-vide) on the oxidation of thiols, tryptophan, alkaline amino acids and protein cross-linking in jerky chicken. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 53(8), 3137–3146.
Sobral, M.M.C., Cunha, S.C., Faria, M.A., Ferreira, I.M. (2018). Domestic cooking of muscle foods: Impact on composition of nutrients and contaminants. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 17(2), 309–333.
Soladoye, O.P., Juarez, M.L., Aalhus, J.L., Shand, P., Estévez, M. (2015). Protein oxidation in processed meat: Mechanisms and potential implications on human health. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 14(2), 106–122.
Souza, H.A.L., Bragagnolo, N. (2014). New method for the extraction of volatile lipid oxidation products from shrimp by headspace-solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and evaluation of the effect of salting and drying. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(3), 590–599.
Sun, W., Zhao, M., Yang, B., Zhao, H., Cui, C. (2011). Oxidation of sarcoplasmic proteins during processing of Cantonese sausage in relation to their aggregation behaviour and in vitro digestibility. Meat Science, 88(3), 462–467.
USDA-FDA. (2011). Food Safety for People with Diabetes, [https://www.fda.gov/media/1209..., last accessed on 30.07.2020].
Visessanguan, W., Benjakul, S., Riebroy, S., Thepkasikul, P. (2004). Changes in composition and functional properties of proteins and their contributions to Nham characteristics. Meat Science, 66(3), 579–588.
Wang, K., Yang, H., Bao, Y., Feng, R., Wang, Y., Chen, D., Zhou, P. (2019). Effect of different core temperatures on the quality of steam-cooked Micropterus salmoides. Science & Technology of Food Industry, 40(15), 20–27 (in Chinese; English abstract).
Wen, S., Zhou, G., Li, L., Xu, X., Yu, X., Bai, Y., Li, C. (2015). Effect of cooking on in vitro digestion of pork proteins: A peptidomic perspective. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 63(1), 250–261.
Yu, D., Xu, Y., Regenstein, J.M., Xia, W., Yang, F., Jiang, Q., Wang, B. (2018). The effects of edible chitosan-based coatings on flavor quality of raw grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets during refrigerated storage. Food Chemistry, 242, 412–420.
Yuan, Y., Chen, Y.J., Liu, Y.J., Yang, H.J., Liang, G.Y., Tian, L.X. (2014). Dietary high level of vitamin premix can eliminate oxidized fish oil-induced oxidative damage and loss of reducing capacity in juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Aquaculture Nutrition, 20(2), 109–117.
Zhang, L., Li, Q., Jia, S., Huang, Z., Luo, Y. (2018). Effect of different stunning methods on antioxidant status, in vivo myofibrillar protein oxidation, and the susceptibility to oxidation of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) fillets during 72 h postmortem. Food Chemistry, 246(25), 121–128.
Zhou, C., Pan, D., Sun, Y., Li, C., Xu, X., Cao, J., Zhou, G. (2018). The effect of cooking temperature on the aggregation and digestion rate of myofibrillar proteins in Jinhua ham. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 98(9), 3563–3570.