Search for Author, Title, Keyword
Oral Supplementation with Three Vegetable Oils Differing in Fatty Acid Composition Alleviates High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in Mice by Regulating Inflammation and Lipid Metabolism
More details
Hide details
College of Food Science, Southwest University, Beibei District, Chongqing 400715, P.R. China
Food Science and Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Al-Azhar University (Assiut Branch), Assiut, Egypt
Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Science, Chongqing 400060, P.R. China
Science and Technology Department, Chongqing Medical and Pharmaceutical College, Chongqing 401334, P.R. China
Chongqing Key Laboratory of Specialty Food Co-Built by Sichuan and Chongqing, Chongqing 400715, P.R. China
Geng Zhong   

Food Science, College of Food Science, Southwest University, 400715, Chongqing, China
Submission date: 2022-12-03
Acceptance date: 2023-02-02
Online publication date: 2023-02-28
Publication date: 2023-02-28
Pol. J. Food Nutr. Sci. 2023;73(1):80–94
Obesity has become one of the most prevalent chronic diseases worldwide, which affects people's health and daily lives. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the anti-obesity effects of perilla seed oil (PSO), sunflower oil (SFO), and tea seed oil (TSO) and their potential mechanisms in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mice were divided into five groups: ND, mice fed a normal diet; HFD, mice fed a high-fat diet; PSO, SFO, and TSO, mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with PSO, SFO, and TSO at 2 g/kg body weight per day, respectively. Our findings showed that oral supplementation with all three oils for 8 weeks significantly reduced body weight, tissue weight, insulin resistance index, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and free fatty acids (FFA), and markedly alleviated hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis in obese mice. It also decreased leptin, pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and (IL)-1beta (IL-1β), and increased anti-inflammatory adipokine adiponectin at both secretion and mRNA expression levels in the epididymal adipose tissue (EAT). Moreover, PSO, SFO, and TSO administration increased the expression levels of fatty acid β-oxidation-related genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (CPT1a) and CPT1b, and thermogenesis-related genes such as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), and decreased the expression levels of lipid synthesis-related genes, including fatty acid synthase (FAS) and PPAR-γ in EAT. In conclusion, PSO, SFO, and TSO supplementation could have potential anti-obesity effects in HFD-fed mice by reducing inflammation and improving lipid metabolism.
This work was financially supported by the Chongqing Modern Mountainous Characteristic Efficient Agricultural Industrial Technology System (Innovation Team No. 2021 [4]); Key R&D projects of Sichuan Science and Technology Plan (2020YFN0148).
The authors declare no conflict of interest
Adeleke, B.S., Babalola, O.O. (2020). Oilseed crop sunflower (Helianthus annuus) as a source of food: Nutritional and health benefits. Food Science and Nutrition, 8(9), 4666–4684.
Altberg, A., Hovav, R., Chapnik, N., Madar, Z. (2020). Effect of dietary oils from various sources on carbohydrate and fat metabolism in mice. Food and Nutrition Research, 64, art. no. 4287.
Asif, M. (2011). Health effects of omega-3,6,9 fatty acids: Perilla frutescens is a good example of plant oils. Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine, 11(1), 51–59.
Bjermo, H., Iggman, D., Kullberg, J., Dahlman, I., Johansson, L., Persson, L., Berglund, J., Pulkki, K., Basu, S., Uusitupa, M., Rudling, M., Arner, P., Cederholm, T., Ahlström, H., Risérus, U. (2012). Effects of n-6 PUFAs compared with SFAs on liver fat, lipoproteins, and inflammation in abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95(5), 1003–1012.
Bond, L.M., Ntambi, J.M. (2018). UCP1 deficiency increases adipose tissue monounsaturated fatty acid synthesis and trafficking to the liver. Journal of Lipid Research, 59(2), 224–236.
Bremer, J. (2001). The biochemistry of hypo- and hyperlipidemic fatty acid derivatives: metabolism and metabolic effects. Progress in Lipid Research, 40(4), 231–268.
Chang, Y., Li, H., Ren, H., Xu, H., Hu, P. (2019). Misclassification of chronic hepatitis B natural history phase: Insight from new ALT, AST, AKP, and GGT reference intervals in Chinese children. Clinica Chimica Acta, 489, 61–67.
Chen, G., Li, H., Zhao, Y., Zhu, H., Cai, E., Gao, Y., Liu, S., Yang, H., Zhang, L. (2017). Saponins from stems and leaves of Panax ginseng prevent obesity via regulating thermogenesis, lipogenesis and lipolysis in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 106(Part A), 393–403.
Cheng, Y.-T., Wu, S.-L., Ho, C.-Y., Huang, S.-M., Cheng, C.-L., Yen, G.-C. (2014). Beneficial effects of Camellia Oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.) on ketoprofen-induced gastrointestinal mucosal damage through upregulation of HO-1 and VEGF. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 62(3), 642–650.
Cui, C., Li, Y., Gao, H., Zhang, H., Han, J., Zhang, D., Li, Y., Zhou, J., Lu, C., Su, X. (2017). Modulation of the gut microbiota by the mixture of fish oil and krill oil in high-fat diet-induced obesity mice. PLoS ONE, 12(10), art. no. e0186216.
Decara, J., Rivera, P., López-Gambero, A.J., Serrano, A., Pavón, F.J., Baixeras, E., Rodríguez de Fonseca, F., Suárez, J. (2020). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: Experimental targeting for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11, art. no. 730.
Ebrahimi, R., Shanaki, M., Mohassel Azadi, S., Bahiraee, A., Radmard, A.R., Poustchi, H., Emamgholipour, S. (2022). Low level of adiponectin predicts the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: Is it irrespective to visceral adiposity index, visceral adipose tissue thickness and other obesity indices? Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry, 128(1), 24–31.
Friedewald, W.T., Levy, R.I., Fredrickson, D.S. (1972). Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clinical Chemistry, 18(6), 499–502.
Golshani, H., Haghani, K., Dousti, M., Bakhtiyari, S. (2015). Association of TNF-α 308 G/A polymorphism with type 2 diabetes: A case-control study in the Iranian Kurdish ethnic group. Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives, 6(2), 94–99.
González-Mañán, D., Tapia, G., Gormaz, J.G., D'Espessailles, A., Espinosa, A., Masson, L., Varela, P., Valenzuela, A., Valenzuela, R. (2012). Bioconversion of α-linolenic acid to n-3 LCPUFA and expression of PPAR-alpha, acyl Coenzyme A oxidase 1 and carnitine acyl transferase I are incremented after feeding rats with α-linolenic acid-rich oils. Food and Function, 3(7), 765–772.
Gregg, E.W., Shaw, J.E. (2017). Global health effects of overweight and obesity. The New England Journal of Medicine, 377(1), 80–81.
He, L., Zhou, G.-Y., Zhang, G.-Y., Liu, J.-A. (2011). Research progress on the health function of tea oil. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5(4), 485–489.
Henderson, G.C. (2021). Plasma free fatty acid concentration as a modifiable risk factor for metabolic disease. Nutrients, 13(8), art. no. 2590.
Hirabara, S.M., Folador, A., Fiamoncini, J., Lambertucci, R.H., Rodrigues, C.F., Rocha, M.S., Aikawa, J., Yamazaki, R.K., Martins, A.R., Rodrigues, A.C., Carpinelli, A.R., Pithon-Curi, T.C., Fernandes, L.C., Gorjão, R., Curi, R. (2013). Fish oil supplementation for two generations increases insulin sensitivity in rats. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 24(6), 1136–1145.
Hirako, S., Kim, H., Arai, T., Chiba, H., Matsumoto, A. (2010). Effect of concomitantly used fish oil and cholesterol on lipid metabolism. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 21(7), 573–579.
Huang, B., Wang, X., Liang, X. (2015). Effects of tea cultivars and oil extraction process on fatty acid component in tea seed. Journal of the Chinese Cereals and Oils Association, 30(1), 65–70 and 75.
Huang, T., Zhou, W., Ma, X., Jiang, J., Zhang, F., Zhou, W., He, H., Cui, G. (2021). Oral administration of camellia oil ameliorates obesity and modifies the gut microbiota composition in mice fed a high-fat diet. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 368(10), art. no. fnab063.
Hummasti, S., Hotamisligil, G.S. (2010). Endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in obesity and diabetes. Circulation Research, 107(5), 579–591.
Janani, C., Ranjitha Kumari, B.D. (2015). PPAR gamma gene – A review. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews, 9(1), 46–50.
Jiang, Y., Liu, D., Kong, X., Xu, Y., Chen, W., Lin, N. (2014). Huogu I formula prevents steroid-induced osteonecrosis in rats by down-regulating PPARγ expression and activating Wnt/LRP5/β-catenin signaling. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 34(3), 342–350.
Kersten, S., Stienstra, R. (2017). The role and regulation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha in human liver. Biochimie, 136, 75–84.
Kliewer, S.A., Xu, H.E., Lambert, M.H., Willson, T.M. (2001). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: from genes to physiology. Recent Progress in Hormone Research, 56, 239–263.
Lee, H.J., Jung, H., Cho, H., Lee, K., Kwak, H.-K., Hwang, K.T. (2016). Dietary black raspberry seed oil ameliorates inflammatory activities in db/db mice. Lipids, 51(6), 715–727.
Li, Y., Hruby, A., Bernstein, A.M., Ley, S.H., Wang, D.D., Chiuve, S.E., Sampson, L., Rexrode, K.M., Rimm, E.B., Willett, W.C., Hu, F.B. (2015). Saturated fats compared with unsaturated fats and sources of carbohydrates in relation to risk of coronary heart disease: A prospective cohort study. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 66(14), 1538–1548.
Li, Z., Ji, G.E. (2018). Ginseng and obesity. Journal of Ginseng Research, 42(1), 1–8.
Lian, Z., Perrard, X.D., Peng, X., Raya, J.L., Hernandez, A.A., Johnson, C.G., Lagor, W.R., Pownall, H.J., Hoogeveen, R.C., Simon, S.I., Sacks, F.M., Ballantyne, C.M., Wu, H. (2020). Replacing saturated fat with unsaturated fat in Western diet reduces foamy monocytes and atherosclerosis in male Ldlr-/- mice. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 40(1), 72–85.
Liao, F.-H., Liou, T.-H., Shieh, M.-J., Chien, Y.-W. (2010). Effects of different ratios of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids on regulating body fat deposition in hamsters. Nutrition, 26(7–8), 811–817.
Mishra, B.K., Madhu, S.V., Aslam, M., Agarwal, V., Banerjee, B.D. (2021). Adipose tissue expression of UCP1 and PRDM16 genes and their association with postprandial triglyceride metabolism and glucose intolerance. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 182, art. no. 109115.
Monk, J.M., Liddle, D.M., Hutchinson, A.L., Wu, W., Lepp, D., Ma, D.W.L., Robinson, L.E., Power, K.A. (2019). Fish oil supplementation to a high-fat diet improves both intestinal health and the systemic obese phenotype. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 72, art. no. 108216.
Neeland, I.J., Poirier, P., Després, J.P. (2018). Cardiovascular and metabolic heterogeneity of obesity: Clinical challenges and implications for management. Circulation, 137(13), 1391–1406.
Noratto, G., Chew, B.P., Ivanov, I. (2016). Red raspberry decreases heart biomarkers of cardiac remodeling associated with oxidative and inflammatory stress in obese diabetic db/db mice. Food and Function, 7(12), 4944–4955.
Oh, D.Y., Olefsky, J.M. (2012). Omega 3 fatty acids and GPR120. Cell Metabolism, 15(5), 564–565.
Ormseth, M.J., Swift, L.L., Fazio, S., Linton, M.F., Raggi, P., Solus, J.F., Oeser, A., Bian, A., Gebretsadik, T., Shintani, A., Stein, C.M. (2013). Free fatty acids are associated with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance but not inflammation in systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus, 22(1), 26–33.
Ouchi, N., Parker, J.L., Lugus, J.J., Walsh, K. (2011). Adipokines in inflammation and metabolic disease. Nature Reviews Immunology, 11(2), 85–97.
Pajvani, U.B., Hawkins, M., Combs, T.P., Rajala, M.W., Doebber, T., Berger, J.P., Wagner, J.A., Wu, M., Knopps, A., Xiang, A.H., Utzschneider, K.M., Kahn, S.E., Olefsky, J.M., Buchanan, T.A., Scherer, P.E. (2004). Complex distribution, not absolute amount of adiponectin, correlates with thiazolidinedione-mediated improvement in insulin sensitivity. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 279(13), 12152–12162.
Park, H.S., Park, J.Y., Yu, R. (2005). Relationship of obesity and visceral adiposity with serum concentrations of CRP, TNF-α and IL-6. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 69(1), 29–35.
Parto, P., Lavie, C.J. (2017). Obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Current Problems in Cardiology, 42(11), 376–394.
Pradhan, S., Panchali, T., Paul, B., Khatun, A., Rao Jarapala, S., Mondal, K.C., Ghosh, K., Chakrabarti, S. (2020). Anti-obesity potentiality of Tapra fish (Opisthopterus tardoore) oil. Journal of Food Biochemistry, 44(11), art. no. e13448.
Qu, L., Liu, Q., Zhang, Q., Liu, D., Zhang, C., Fan, D., Deng, J., Yang, H. (2019a). Kiwifruit seed oil ameliorates inflammation and hepatic fat metabolism in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Journal of Functional Foods, 52, 715–723.
Qu, L., Liu, Q., Zhang, Q., Tuo, X., Fan, D., Deng, J., Yang, H. (2019b). Kiwifruit seed oil prevents obesity by regulating inflammation, thermogenesis, and gut microbiota in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 125, 85–94.
Reagan-Shaw, S., Nihal, M., Ahmad, N. (2008). Dose translation from animal to human studies revisited. The FASEB Journal, 22(3), 659–661.
Scheithauer, T.P.M., Rampanelli, E., Nieuwdorp, M., Vallance, B.A., Verchere, C.B., van Raalte, D.H., Herrema, H. (2020). Gut microbiota as a trigger for metabolic inflammation in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Frontiers in Immunology, 11, art. no. 571731.
Stienstra, R., Tack, C.J., Kanneganti, T.-D., Joosten, L.A.B., Netea, M.G. (2012). The inflammasome puts obesity in the danger zone. Cell Metabolism, 15(1), 10–18.
Su, J., Ma, C., Liu, C., Gao, C., Nie, R., Wang, H. (2016). Hypolipidemic activity of peony seed oil rich in α-linolenic, is mediated through inhibition of lipogenesis and upregulation of fatty acid β-oxidation. Journal of Food Science, 81(4), H1001–H1009.
Sundaram, S., Bukowski, M.R., Lie, W.-R., Picklo, M.J., Yan, L. (2016). High-fat diets containing different amounts of n3 and n6 polyunsaturated fatty acids modulate inflammatory cytokine production in mice. Lipids, 51(5), 571–582.
Takahashi, H., Chi, H.-Y., Mohri, S., Kamakari, K., Nakata, K., Ichijo, N., Nakata, R., Inoue, H., Goto, T., Kawada, T. (2016). Rice koji extract enhances lipid metabolism through proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) activation in mouse liver. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 64(46), 8848–8856.
Thomas, S.S., Cha, Y.-S., Kim, K.-A. (2020a). Effect of vegetable oils with different fatty acid composition on high-fat diet-induced obesity and colon inflammation. Nutrition Research and Practice, 14(5), 425–437.
Thomas, S.S., Cha, Y.-S., Kim, K.-A. (2020b). Perilla oil alleviates high-fat diet-induced inflammation in the colon of mice by suppressing nuclear factor-kappa B activation. Journal of Medicinal Food, 23(8), 818–826.
Trayhurn, P., Wood, I.S. (2004). Adipokines: inflammation and the pleiotropic role of white adipose tissue. British Journal of Nutrition, 92(3), 347–355.
Tung, Y.-T., Hsu, Y.-J., Chien, Y.-W., Huang, C.-C., Huang, W.-C., Chiu, W.-C. (2019). Tea seed oil prevents obesity, reduces physical fatigue, and improves exercise performance in high-fat-diet-induced obese ovariectomized mice. Molecules, 24(5), art. no. 980.
Wagner, N., Wagner, K.-D. (2020). The role of PPARs in disease. Cells, 9(11), art. no. 2367.
Wang, F., Zhu, H., Hu, M., Wang, J., Xia, H., Yang, X., Yang, L., Sun, G. (2018). Perilla oil supplementation improves hypertriglyceridemia and gut dysbiosis in diabetic KKAy mice. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 62(24), art. no. 1800299.
Wang, J., He, Y., Yu, D., Jin, L., Gong, X., Zhang, B. (2020). Perilla oil regulates intestinal microbiota and alleviates insulin resistance through the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in type-2 diabetic KKAy mice. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 135, art. no. 110965.
Wang, S.-S., Lay, S., Yu, H.-N., Shen, S.-R. (2016). Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents (2016): comments and comparisons. Journal of Zhejiang University – Science B, 17(9), 649–656.
Whitehead, A., Krause, F.N., Moran, A., MacCannell, A.D.V., Scragg, J.L., McNally, B.D., Boateng, E., Murfitt, S.A., Virtue, S., Wright, J., Garnham, J., Davies, G.R., Dodgson, J., Schneider, J.E., Murray, A.J., Church, C., Vidal-Puig, A., Witte, K.K., Griffin, J.L., Roberts, L.D. (2021). Brown and beige adipose tissue regulate systemic metabolism through a metabolite interorgan signaling axis. Nature Communications, 12(1), art. no. 1905.
Williams, K.W., Scott, M.M., Elmquist, J.K. (2009). From observation to experimentation: leptin action in the mediobasal hypothalamus. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89(3), 985S–990S.
Wolf, G., Phil, D. (1996). High-fat, high-cholesterol diet raises plasma HDL cholesterol: Studies on the mechanism of this effect. Nutrition Reviews, 54(1), 34–35.
Wu, C.-C., Tung, Y.-T., Chen, S.-Y., Lee, W.-T., Lin, H.-T., Yen, G.-C. (2020). Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and microbiota-modulating effects of camellia oil from Camellia brevistyla on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Antioxidants, 9(1), art. no. 58.
Yang, S.-C., Lin, S.-H., Chang, J.-S., Chien, Y.-W. (2017). High fat diet with a high monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio suppresses body fat accumulation and weight gain in obese hamsters. Nutrients, 9(10), art. no. 1148.
Zhang, C., Wu, W., Li, X., Xin, X., Liu, D. (2019). Daily supplementation with fresh Angelica keiskei juice alleviates high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice by modulating gut microbiota composition. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 63(14), art. no. 1900248.
Zhang, H., Zhang, W., Yun, D., Li, L., Zhao, W., Li, Y., Liu, X., Liu, Z. (2020). Alternate-day fasting alleviates diabetes-induced glycolipid metabolism disorders: roles of FGF21 and bile acids. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 83, art. no. 108403.
Zhang, X., Zhang, Q.-X., Wang, X., Zhang, L., Qu, W., Bao, B., Liu, C.-A., Liu, J. (2016). Dietary luteolin activates browning and thermogenesis in mice through an AMPK/PGC1α pathway-mediated mechanism. International Journal of Obesity, 40(12), 1841–1849.